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Christina Y. Bethin, ed. American Contributions to the 14th International Congress of Slavists, Ohrid, September 2008. Vol. 1: Linguistics. Bloomington, IN: Slavica, 59–74. A Folk Classification of Polish Emotions: Evidence from a Corpus-Based Study* Katarzyna Dziwirek 1. Introduction In most languages, when people talk about how they feel they typically use verbs, as in Polish (1) and Russian (2), or adjectives and participles, as in the English equivalents (3). (1) Anna boi si!, !e j" zwolni". Anna si! w"cieka#a. Anna martwi si!, bo mama nie wraca. Anna ucieszy#a si!, !e mama wróci#a. (2) Anna boitsja, $to ee uvoliat. Anna u%asno rasserdilas.’ Anna bespokoitsja iz-za togo, $to ee mat’ opazdyvaet. Anna obradovalas,’ $to mat’ pri&la domoj. (3) Anna is afraid that she will get fired. Anna was furious. Anna is worried because her mom is late. Anna was glad that her mom was back. The contrast between the use of verbs in Slavic vs. adjectives in English to express emotion has been discussed by Wierzbicka (1994, 1995), among others, and suggests that the two languages may conceptualize emotions differently. In this paper, * This is a corpus study based on actual language materials and reflecting attested frequencies of particular constructions. All data cited here come from four corpora: PELCRA (Polish and English Language Corpora for Research and Applications), PELCRA Sampler, the Longman Corpus Network, and the British National Corpus. There are brief descriptions of the corpora in the reference section. The work presented here is my own, but it is a part of a larger project with Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk of 'od( University (Dziwirek and LewandowskaTomaszczyk forthcoming). 76 KATARZYNA DZIWIREK I focus on emotion nouns, i.e., words like English anger, indignation, hate, love, fear, desire, compassion, envy, euphoria, dread, anxiety, and their Polish equivalents.1 The initial question I want to pose is what do we do with emotions? Specifically, what do we do with emotion nouns? The most obvious answer, at least in English, is that we feel them. Yet, if we examine the collocations of the verb to feel in English, we find that in fact it rarely occurs with simple emotion nouns as direct objects in modern colloquial usage: (4) ?Adam felt anger/fury. Adam was angry/furious. ? ?Adam felt fear. Adam was frightened/afraid. *Adam felt worry. Adam was worried. *Adam felt jealousy. Adam was jealous. We do find emotion nouns as objects of ‘to feel,’ most often when the sentences and the noun phrases are more complex (5), but the question remains: What do we DO with simple emotion nouns? (5) He felt an engulfing anger spread through his body and mind; he wanted to strike back at his attacker with all of his might. She felt the stirring of desire deep inside her. As it turns out, emotion nouns occur with an interesting array of verbs in both languages: (6) English verbs used with emotion nouns (X = experiencer, Y = emotion): to awaken, to stir, to arouse Y in X, X to feel, to foster, to cherish, to nurse, to entertain, to nurture, to nourish, to harbor Y, X was filled with Y, X was overcome by Y (7) Polish verbs used with emotion nouns (X = experiencer, Y = emotion): X odczuwa!, czu! Y ‘to feel,’ X mie! Y ‘to have/feel,’ X "ywi! Y ‘to feel/feed,’ Y ogarn#!, opanowa! X ‘to take over/engulf X,’ Y wst$powa! w X ‘to enter into X,’ wprawi!, wp$dzi! X w Y, doprowadzi!, przywie%! X do Y ‘to lead X to Y,’ 1 Although in this paper I discuss only Polish expressions, it is possible that the generalizations presented here apply to other Slavic languages as well. The parallels between reflexive verbs in Polish and Russian, and between wpa%! w ‘fall into’ and prepositional constructions discussed by Mostovaja (1998) suggest that other Slavic languages might classify emotions in a similar way. A FOLK CLASSIFICATION OF POLISH EMOTIONS 77 wzbudzi!/obudzi! Y w X ‘to awaken Y in X,’ wywo"a! Y w X ‘to summon/ call forth Y in X’, X wpa#! w Y ‘X to fall into Y’ The lists in (6) and (7) are obviously not exhaustive, but they are the beginning of an answer to our first question and they present an interesting picture. Both languages have the concepts of awakening, stirring, arousing sleeping emotions; both languages employ the imagery of emotions in need of care and sustenance: feeding, nursing, fostering, etc., and emotions in both...


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