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  193 Notes Chapter 1 1 The icon is known as Agios Nikolaos o Streidas—St. Nicholas of the Oyster. Martin Ebon, Saint Nicholas: Life and Legend (New York: Harper & Row, 1975), 19. 2 LuigiMartino,“Ricognizioneanatomicaestudioantropometico delle reliquie ossee di San Nicola di Bari,” Bollettino di san Nicola , numero speciale (April–December 1957); accessed online at Cripte e Santi website, .htm. 3 Quoted in Ian Sample, “How Do You Reconstruct Santa’s Face?” The Guardian, December 16, 2004, /science/2004/dec/16/thisweekssciencequestions1. 4 Maurice Chittenden, “Revealed: The Real Santa, A Saint with a Broken Nose,” The Sunday Times, December 12, 2004, http:// 5 Quoted in Sample, “How Do You Reconstruct?” 6 Gerry Bowler, Santa Claus: A Biography (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2005), 121–24. 7 Edward Clare, St. Nicholas: His Legends and Iconography (Florence : Leo S. Olschki, 1985), 22. 8 This image can be found in Clare, St. Nicholas, 23. Photograph by Kurt Weitzmann. Used with permission of the publisher. 9 Clare cites Otto Demus to say that less than 1 percent of all Byzantine art survived the Western crusade of 1204. Clare, St. Nicholas, 21.  194 Notes to pp. 9–14 10 Marianna Mayer, The Real Santa Claus (New York: Dial, 2001); Louise Carus, The Real St. Nicholas (Wheaton: Theosophical Publishing, 2002). 11 Gerardo Cioffari, “St. Nicholas: Documentary Evidence in Literature and Archeology,” Bollettino di San Nicola 66, nos. 11 and 12 (1997): 12. 12 Ihor Ševčenko and Nancy Patterson Ševčenko, “Introduction,” in The Life of Saint Nicholas of Sion (Brookline, Mass.: Hellenic College Press, 1984), 13. 13 Symeon Metaphrastes, Bios kai Politeia, in Patrologia Graeca, ed. J.-P. Migne (Paris, 1857–1866), 116:317–56. 14 Gustav Anrich, Hagios Nikolaos: Der heilige Nikolaus in der griechischen Kirche, 2 vols. (Leipzig: Teubner, 1913–1917), 2:514. 15 Charles Jones, Saint Nicholas of Myra, Bari, and Manhattan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), 7. 16 See, e.g., Peter Brown’s works, The Cult of the Saints (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981); Authority and the Sacred (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995); and The Rise of Western Christendom, 2nd ed. (Malden: Blackwell, 2003). 17 Nicholas was almost an exact contemporary of Antony. 18 A. G. Gibson, “St. Nicholas of Myra,” in New Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967), 10:454. 19 Walter Nigg, Great Saints (Hinsdale: Regnery, 1946; trans. William Stirling, London: Francis Aldor, 1948). 20 The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, ed. David Farmer, 3rd ed., s.v. “Nicholas.” 21 Aviad Kleinberg, Flesh Made Word: Saints’ Stories and the Western Imagination (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008). 22 Thomas Craughwell, Saints Preserved: An Encyclopedia of Relics (New York: Image Books, 2011), 220. 23 Gerardo Cioffari, Saint Nicholas: His Life, Miracles and Legends , trans. Victoria Sportelli (Bari: Centro Studi Nicolaiani, 2008), 9, 41. 24 Jones, Saint Nicholas of Myra, 12–13. 25 Procopius, De aedificiis 1.6, in Procopius, trans. H. B. Dewing, Loeb Classical Library 7 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935), 62–63. 26 Proclus, Proclus of Constantinople and the Cult of the Virgin in Late Antiquity: Homilies 1–5, Text and Translations, ed. Nicholas Constas (New York: Brill, 2002).  195 Notes to pp. 14–17 27 Cioffari, “St. Nicholas: Documentary Evidence,” 9. Also see Cioffari, S. Nicola nella Critica Storica (Bari: Centro Studi Nicolaiani, 1987), 17–21. 28 Cioffari, S. Nicola, 17–45. Anrich, Hagios Nikolaos, 1:67–91. 29 Anrich, Hagios Nikolaos, 2:452, 468. 30 Oxford Dictionary of Saints, 354–55. 31 Anrich, Hagios Nikolaos, 2:301–2. 32 T. G. Elliot, The Christianity of Constantine the Great (Scranton , Pa.: University of Scranton Press, 1996), 195. 33 Eduard Schwartz, Über die Bischofslisten der Synoden von Chalkedon, Nicaea, und Konstantinopel (München: Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1937), 63. Günther C. Hansen, Theodoros Anagnostes Kierchengeschichte (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1971), xi. 34 (1) List of 221 names; (2) Alexandrian Reworking of 225 names; (3) Corpus Canonum of Antioch (before 381); (4–8) Latin Lists I, II, III, IV and V; (9) Syriac List of the year 501; (10) Coptic List of 162 names. Cioffari, Saint Nicholas, 22. 35 (1) Historia Tripartita of Theodore the Lector (c. 515); (2) Vat. Gr, saec. XIV; (3) Sinaiticus 1117; (4) Hierosolymitanus Metoch, 2; (5) Hierosolymitanus Patr., 167; (6) Arabicus, saec. XIV. Cioffari, Saint Nicholas, 22. In support of the authenticity and accuracy of the later and longer lists...