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Notes Introduction 1. For additional information about the importance of California to the national su√rage movement, see Steven M. Buechler, The Transformation of the Woman Suffrage Movement: The Case of Illinois, 1850–1920 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1986), 14–15; Mari Jo Buhle, Women and American Socialism, 1870–1920 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), 230; Nancy F. Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987), 27–28; Eleanor Flexner, Century of Struggle: The Woman’s Rights Movement in the United States, rev. ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975), 265. 2. See A.S.B. [Alice Stone Blackwell], ‘‘Our New Star,’’ Woman’s Journal 42 (Oct. 21, 1911): 332. For examples of eastern su√ragists who were exalting over the California victory—as they counted electoral votes—see ‘‘Another Star Now Added to Su√rage Flag,’’ Woman’s Journal 42 (Oct. 14, 1911): 321, and ‘‘Our Biggest Star,’’ Woman’s Journal 42 (Nov. 11, 1911): 356. For the importance of the West in winning the national su√rage victory, see David Morgan, Su√ragists and Democrats: The Politics of Woman Su√rage in America (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1972). 3. For definitions of politics see Louise A. Tilly and Patricia Gurin, ‘‘Women, Politics , and Change,’’ in Women, Politics, and Change, ed. Louise A. Tilly and Patricia Gurin (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1990), 3–32; Sandra Morgen and Ann Bookman, ‘‘Rethinking Women and Politics: An Introductory Essay,’’ in Women and the Politics of Empowerment, ed. Ann Bookman and Sandra Morgen (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988), 3–29; Paula Baker, ‘‘The Domestication of Politics: Women and American Political Society, 1780–1920,’’ American Historical Review 89 (June 1984): 620–47, and The Moral Frameworks of Public Life: Gender, Politics, and the 208 Notes to Pages 2–5 State in Rural New York, 1870–1930 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991). For discussions of political culture, see also Thomas Bender, ‘‘Wholes and Parts: The Need for Synthesis in American History,’’ Journal of American History 73 (June 1986): 120– 36, esp. 126, 131, 135; Stephen Weld, The Concept of Political Culture (New York: St. Martin’s, 1993), esp. 152–58. 4. On the paradox of change see Joan Wallach Scott, Only Paradoxes to O√er: French Feminists and the Rights of Man (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996); Sidney Tarrow, ‘‘Mentalities, Political Cultures, and Collective Action Frames: Constructing Meanings Through Action,’’ in Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, ed. Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992), 174–202. 5. Anne Firor Scott developed the model for a history of the women’s movement that told the story of its many di√erent participants; see The Southern Lady: From Pedestal to Politics, 1830–1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970). For a discussion of the relationship between collective identity and feminism, see Gerda Lerner , The Creation of Patriarchy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), 231–43. For other histories that understand politics as the struggle to ‘‘reconstitute society and social relations,’’ see Lynn Hunt, Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), esp. 12 and 72 (quote at p. 12); Lawrence Goodwyn, The Populist Moment: A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978), esp. 293, 295–96. 6. For an insightful discussion of the meaning of a woman’s—as opposed to women ’s—movement, see Cott, Grounding of Modern Feminism, 6, 16–19. For other discussions of the meaning of ‘‘woman,’’ see Elizabeth V. Spelman, Inessential Woman: Problems of Exclusion in Feminist Thought (Boston: Beacon, 1988), x, 11–13, 162–67, 171–77, and Denise Riley, ‘‘Am I That Name?’’: Feminism and the Category of ‘‘Women’’ in History (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988). 7. For other histories that study the relationship of women’s ‘‘work’’ and political activism of the progressive-era women’s movement, see Robyn Muncy, Creating a Female Dominion in American Reform, 1890–1935 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991); Kathryn Kish Sklar, Florence Kelley and the Nation’s Work: The Rise of Women’s Political Culture, 1830–1900 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1995); and Elizabeth Hayes Turner, Women, Culture, and Community: Religion and Reform in Galveston, 1880–1920 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997). 8. For definitions of citizenship that relate it to gender, see Linda K. Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (Chapel...


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