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Notes Introduction 1. To ferry an airplane is to fly it from one place to another. 2. Kay Gott Chaffey, Women in Pursuit (self-published, McKinleyville, CA, 1993), pp. 96, 120, 140, 168, 198. 3. On May 29, 1941, the Air Corps Ferrying Command was established as part of the Army Air Corps (an arm of the U.S. Army). Its mission: to ferry Lend-Lease airplanes to the British and also to train more pilots for ferrying duties. On June 20, 1941, the Army Air Forces was created. The Air Corps continued to exist as a combat arm of the Army (similar to the Infantry), but was no longer an administrative organization ; rather, it became a subordinate element of the Army Air Forces. All this was prior to the United States’ entry into World War II. In June 1942, after the United States had entered the war, the Air Corps Ferrying Command was reorganized and renamed the Air Transport Command (ATC). Its primary arm—the one responsible for ferrying aircraft worldwide—was named the Ferrying Division, which was charged with ferrying aircraft across the United States and abroad. A total of 303 women pilots (members of the WAFS/WASP) were, at some point, assigned to the Ferrying Division, Air Transport Command, between September 1942 and December 1944. Most of them referred to their service as “the Ferry Command.” William H. Tunner (Lieutenant General) with Booton Herndon, Over the Hump (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1964), pp. 11, 18, 28; “United States Army Air Corps,” Wikipedia, Army_Air_Corps#Lineage_of_the_United_States_Air_Force Site, accessed January 2, 2009; and random interviews with women pilots who served in the Ferrying Division. 4. The term check out was used widely in the Ferrying Division, Air Transport Command, U.S. Army Air Forces, during World War II. It means to be deemed qualified to fly a given airplane as Pilot in Command. WASP ferry pilot Iris Cummings Critchell (Class 43-2) gives the following explanation : “Check out is a quick, colloquial expression for the completion of re- 186 • Notes to Pages 10–21 quired training—either the initial phase or a later currency check—on a specific airplane . The record of each ‘check out’ was carefully recorded on your Flight Record Form 5 and listed as ‘checked out’ next to the make and model on your qualification card, which you carried with you as you ferried airplanes from base to base or location to location.” Critchell was stationed with the women’s squadron, 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California, from June 1943 through December 1944. Chapter 1 1. Information in this chapter comes from interviews with Nancy Batson Crews dated May 1999 and June, August, November, and December 2000; from Chapter 34 in the author’s book about the WAFS, The Originals: The Women’s Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron of World War II (Sarasota, FL: Disc-Us Books, Inc., 2001), pp. 321–325; and from an article by the author in the Birmingham Aero Club Newsletter, February 2001. Chapter 2 1. Except where otherwise noted, the information in this chapter comes from a series of interviews conducted by the author with Nancy Batson Crews in January 1992 and May 1999 in Centerville, OH, and between June and December 2000 in Odenville, AL. 2. Interview by the author with Amy Batson Strange, Nancy’s sister, April 18, 2001, Auburn, AL. 3. Katherine Price Garmon and Virginia Pounds, Winnataska Remembered (Birmingham , AL: Brown, Beechwood Books, 1992; sponsored by the Camp Winnataska Advisory Committee). 4. Ibid. 5. “Grade of the Grader,” undated and otherwise unidentified news clipping, in Nancy Batson Crews’s scrapbook, private papers, in the author’s possession. An accompanying article, also unidentified, is headlined “Council Rates Capstone Clubs.” 6. Interview with Amy Batson Strange. Chapter 3 1. Letter to Nancy from Fred R. Maxwell Jr., Director, University of Alabama— C.A.A. [Civil Aeronautics Authority] Flight Training Program, dated October 31, 1939, in Nancy’s scrapbook. 2. Patricia Strickland, The Putt-Putt Air Force: The Story of the Civilian Pilot Training Program and the War Training Service, 1939–1944 (Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Aviation Education Staff, GA-20-84, ca. 1970), p. iii. The Civilian Pilot Training Program (it became the War Training Service after Pearl Notes to Pages 21–37 • 187 Harbor) originated in the mind of Robert H. Hinckley, a member of the newly created (1938) Civil Aeronautics Authority. It used facilities already in existence. The ground training...


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