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1. The Jewish Encyclopedia (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1905), Vol. 9, p. 468. See also Encyclopedia Judaica (Jerusalem: Macmillan, 1971), Vol. 13, p. 24. 2. Dr. Shaul Lifschitz, “Jewish Communities in Kurland,” in Mendel Bobe et al., eds., The Jews in Latvia (Tel Aviv: Association of Latvian and Esthonian Jews in Israel, 1971), p. 276. 3. Mendel Bobe, “Four Hundred Years of the Jews in Latvia,” in The Jews in Latvia, p. 48. 4. Ibid. p. 53. 5. Oscar Handlin, “Introduction,” in Simon Dubnov, History of the Jews (South Brunswick, NJ: Thomas Yoseloff, 1967), p. 6. 6. Bobe, “Four Hundred Years,” p. 84. 7. Anatol Lieven, The Baltic Revolution (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), p. 142. 8. From a document found in the St. Petersburg archives of the Ministry of the Interior. In April 1909 the congregation submitted a petition to the governor of Livland Province (Liflandskaya Gubernya) requesting permission to transfer the deed to the parcel of land from the three merchants to the congregation. 9. V. N. Latkina, Uchebnik Istorii Ruskogo Prava [Textbook of the history of Russian law] (St. Petersburg: Tipografia Montvida, 1909), pp. 180–181. 10. Z. I. Yakub, Evrei b Daugavpilse [Jews in Daugavpils] (Daugavpils: Daugavpils Hebrew Society, 1993), p. 40. Translated by the author. 11. Serge Klarsfeld, Memorial to the Jews Deported From France, 1942–1944 (New York: Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1983), pp. 95–101, Transport 11. 12. Bobe, “Four Hundred Years,” p. 83. 13. Rainer Esslen, A Joy to Paint:The Life of Leo Michelson (Marshall,TX: Michelson Museum of Art, 1998), chapter 9. 14. Bernhard Press, Judenmord in Lettland [Murder of Jews in Latvia] (Berlin: Metropol-Verlag, 1992), p. 27. 15. Lieven, Baltic Revolution, p. 58. Notes  170 NOTES 16. Max Kaufman, Churbn Lettland, Die Vernichtung der Juden Lettlands [The destruction of the Jews of Latvia] (München: Self-published, 1947), p. 49. 17. Press, Judenmord in Lettland, pp. 58ff. 18. Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1985), pp. 280ff. 19. Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews (New York: Bantam, 1975), pp. 279ff. 20. Gertrude Schneider, Journey Into Terror: The Story of the Riga Ghetto (New York: Ark House, 1979), pp. 10–11. 21. Hilberg, Destruction of the European Jews, pp. 275ff. 22. Ibid., p. 294; also Schneider, Journey Into Terror, pp. 10–11. 23. Lieven, Baltic Revolution, p. 58. 24. Abraham Shpungin, Dos is doch geven azey! [So it was indeed!] (Rehovot, Israel: Self-published, 1991), p. 207. 25. Press, Judenmord in Lettland, pp. 70–71. 26. Ibid., p. 74. 27. Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem (New York: Penguin, 1977), p. 125. 28. For a discussion of the Arendt-Heidegger relationship, see Elzbieta Ettinger, Hannah Arendt Martin Heidegger (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995). 29. Isaiah Trunk, Judenrat, the Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe Under Nazi Occupation (New York: Macmillan, 1978), p. xxxv. 30. Shpungin, Dos is doch geven azey, pp. 251–252. Translated by the author. 31. Hilberg, Destruction of the European Jews, p. 353. 32. Ibid., pp. 351–352. Also see Schneider, Journey Into Terror, pp. 12–13. 33. Press, Judenmord in Lettland, p. 128. 34. New York Times, March 10, 1965, p. 17. A detailed description of the intelligence operation is given in Anton Künzle and Gad Shimron, DerTod des Henkers von Riga [The death of the hangman of Riga] (Gerlingen: Bleicher, 1999). 35. Kaufman, Churbn Lettland, pp. 67–68. 36. Jeanette Wolff, Mit Bibel und Bebel (Bonn: Neue Gesellschaft, 1980), pp. 23– 24. 37. Schneider, Journey Into Terror, p. 21. 38. For a graphic description of life under Kurt Krause, see ibid., chapters 2–4. 39. An authoritative account of these events is given in Israel Kaplan, “Gever in Riger Geto” [Weapons in Riga Ghetto], in Kaplan, ed., Fun leztn churbn [From the last destruction], Nos. 1 and 2 (Munich: Central Historical Committee, 1946), pp. 4 and 1, respectively. An abridged translation of the article is found in G. Schneider, ed., Muted Voices, Jewish Survivors of Latvia Remember (New York: Philosophical Library, 1987), pp. 29–39. See also Kaufman, Churbn Lettland, pp. 196–209; and Press, Judenmord in Lettland, pp. 107–112. The accounts differ on some details and dates. 40. Hilberg, Destruction of the European Jews, pp. 345–354. See also Schneider, Journey Into Terror, p. 23. 41. Lieven, Baltic Revolution, p. 148. 42. Agate Nesaule, A Woman in Amber (New York: Soho, 1995), pp. 76–79. 43. Kaufman, Churbn Lettland, p. 170. 44. Hilberg...


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