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n o t e s Introduction 1. Harry McCall to Peter McCall, April 3, 1844 (Rome, England), July 15, 1844 (Paris), May 4, 1844 (Florence), January 24, 1844 (Greece, Constantinople), Peter McCall Papers, series 10, folder 3, Cadwalader Collection (Manuscripts Department, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia). 2. On the 1840s and early national figures, see Brandon Dupont, Alka Gandhi, and Thomas J. Weiss, “The American Invasion of Europe: The Long Term Rise in Overseas Travel, 1820–2000,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 13977 (May 2008), 17–18 and table 1, p. 54. On estimates of colonial travelers, see Susan Lindsey Lively, “Going Home: Americans in Britain, 1740–1776” (PhD diss., Harvard University, 1996), 5; and Julie M. Flavell and Gordon Hay, “Using Capture-Recapture Methods to Reconstruct the American Population in London,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 32 (Summer 2001): 48. 3. Dupont et al. conclude that about 90% of Americans traveling abroad in 1850 visited Europe, and that figure is almost certainly higher for earlier periods. “American Invasion of Europe,” 12. 4. Ibid., 17–18 and table 1, p. 54; on women, 10–11 and fig. 4, p. 43. See also Lynne Withey, Grand Tours and Cook’s Tours: A History of Leisure Travel, 1750 to 1915 (New York: Willliam Morrow, 1997), 60–61. On the French figures, see Harvey Levenstein, Seductive Journey: American Tourists in France from Jefferson to the Jazz Age (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 22–23. See also the more impressionistic estimates given in Foster Rhea Dulles, Americans Abroad: Two Centuries of European Travel (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1964), 26–27, 43–44. 5. Raymond L. Cohn, “Transatlantic U.S. Passenger Travel at the Dawn of the Steamship Era,” International Journal of Maritime History 4 (June 1992): 59; Dupont et al., “American Invasion of Europe,” 6–8. 6. James Jackson Jarves, Italian Sights and Papal Principles, Seen through American Spectacles (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1856), 346. On population, see Dupont et al., “American Invasion of Europe,” 19–20; on fares, see Emory R. Johnson and Grover G. Huebner, Principles of Ocean Transportation (New York: Appleton, 1919), 335–37. 174 Notes to Pages 3–6 7. More detailed information about period-specific travel developments will be provided in the chapters. 8. [George P. Putnam], The Tourist in Europe: A Concise Summary of the Various Routes, Objects of Interest . . . (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1838), 61–63; see also Douglass C. North, “The United States Balance of Payments, 1790–1860,” in Trends in the American Economy in the Nineteenth Century: Studies in Income and Wealth, ed. William N. Parker (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1960), 618–19; round-trip figures from Withey, Grand Tours, 62–63; income estimates from Robert A. Margo, Wages and Labor Markets in the United States, 1820–1860 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), table 3A.7. On the rise in income, see Margo, Wages and Labor Markets; and Dupont et al., “American Invasion of Europe,” 37. 9. Dulles, Americans Abroad, 27, notes that, of about 150 packet ships between 1815 and 1848, only 3 were lost at sea. On the safety of Atlantic commerce, see Ian K. Steele, The English Atlantic, 1675–1740: An Exploration of Communication and Community (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986). 10. Dulles, Americans Abroad, 26–27; Peter Stanford, “Steam and Speed, Part 1: How Steamships Paddled out of the Shallows into the Ocean World,” Sea History 64 (Fall 1992): 12–14 (Junius Smith). See also Stephen Fox, Transatlantic: Samuel Cunard, Isambard Brunel, and the Great Atlantic Steamships (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), chap. 1. 11. Edward W. Sloan III, “The Machine at Sea: Early Transatlantic Steam Travel,” in The Atlantic World of Robert G. Albion, ed. Benjamin W. Larabee (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1975), 110–43; Fox, Transatlantic, chap. 2; Stanford, “Steam and Speed,” 14; David Budlong Tyler, Steam Conquers the Atlantic (New York: D. AppletonCentury , 1939). 12. On guidebooks, see Dulles, Americans Abroad, chap. 6; [Putnam], Tourist in Europe ; Roswell Park, A Hand-Book for American Travellers in Europe, Collated from Best Authorities . . . , 2 vols. (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1853); Mariana Starke, Travels in Europe between the Years 1824 and 1828; Adapted to the Use of Travellers . . . , 2 vols. (Leghorn: Glaucus Maci, 1828). Starke also published a more conventional guidebook, Information and Directions for Travellers on the Continent, 6th ed. (London: John Murray, 1828). Thomas Lee Shippen and James Rutledge Jr. used their valet to solicit the sexual...


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