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APPENDIX 1 Biographical Sketches of Respondents in Berlin Older Homeless People with “Regular” Life Courses Respondent: Sachse, age 35 Place of birth: Dresden, GDR Interviewed: February 17, 1998, Trachenbergring Follow-ups: Four contacts Final status: Exited from homelessness (after 32 months homeless) Sachse was born in Dresden, East Germany, where he had a relatively inconspicuous childhood, graduated from high school,1 completed an apprenticeship in the construction business, and subsequently worked for many years. In 1990, he lost his job, moved to Berlin , found work in the booming construction business, worked continuously for five years, and lived in a one-bedroom apartment in eastern Berlin. After again becoming unemployed , he was unable to pay his rent and was evicted. Respondent: Helmut, age 37 Place of birth: West Berlin Interviewed: February 23, 1998, Trachenbergring Follow-ups: Six contacts Final status: Homeless (duration 30 months as of March 1999) Helmut was raised in West Berlin as the third son of a business owner, had a “normal” childhood, graduated from high school, and completed an apprenticeship in food and consumer retail. He was employed at a supermarket chain, where he eventually became a store manager while maintaining an apartment. He married in 1990, yet following his job loss in 1994 and subsequent increasing alcohol abuse, his wife left him in 1995. One year later, he was evicted because of past-due rent. 144 Appendix 1: Biographical Sketches of Respondents in Berlin Respondent: Kalle, age 44 Place of birth: West Berlin Interviewed: February 28, 1998, Trachenbergring Follow-ups: Five contacts Final status: Exited from homelessness (after 36 months homeless) Kalle was born in West Berlin and raised in a foster-care institution following the death of his single mother when he was three years old. He graduated from high school, completed an apprenticeship as a painter, and subsequently worked as a painter for a number of companies, which allowed him to maintain an apartment. In 1994, he lost his job due to physical problems and his increasing dependency on alcohol. Soon after, he lost his apartment because of past-due rent. Respondent: Hanno, age 35 Place of birth: East Berlin Interviewed: March 6, 1998, Trachenbergring Follow-ups: Five contacts Final status: Exited from homelessness (after 42 months homeless) Hanno was born and raised in East Berlin as the second son of industrial workers, graduated from high school, completed job training as an electrician, and subsequently worked for a construction company doing manual labor until the company went out of business in 1995. Increasing debts as a result of his problem managing finances resulted in his failure to pay rent and subsequent eviction. Respondent: Det, age 49 Place of birth: East Berlin Interviewed: March 6, 1998, Trachenbergring Follow-ups: Four contacts Final status: Homeless (duration 32 months as of March 1999) Det was born and raised in East Berlin, completed high school and an apprenticeship as an electrician, joined the East German police force, and remained a police officer until 1983. Afterward, he worked as a security officer for Berlin’s public-transportation authority before and after unification. He was married twice and has two adult daughters. When his second marriage fell apart in 1996, he had an alcohol-induced nervous breakdown, left his family’s residence, did not show up for work for two weeks, and was subsequently fired, leaving him homeless. Respondent: Hans, age 50 Place of birth: West Berlin Interviewed: March 9, 1998, Warmer Otto Follow-ups: Three contacts Final status: Exited from homelessness (after 276 months homeless) Hans, the only child of a working-class family, completed high school and an apprenticeship as a varnisher and subsequently worked for ten years in his field for the same company . He married in 1966 and lived in a two-bedroom apartment in West Berlin. After the marriage ended in divorce in 1975 and he lost his job, he decided to begin an independent life on the streets free of any material obligations and pressures, alternating between shelter life, life on the streets, and the correctional system. Appendix 1: Biographical Sketches of Respondents in Berlin 145 Respondent: Bernie, age 40 Place of birth: Dortmund, FRG Interviewed: March 9, 1998, Warmer Otto Follow-ups: Three contacts Final status: Homeless (duration 12 months as of March 1999) Bernie was born and raised in Dortmund as the first child of miners, completed high school and an apprenticeship as a miner, and worked in the mining industry in CastropRauxel until the mine closed in 1992. He is married...

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