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233 Introduction 1. Paul Steege, Black Market, Cold War: Everyday Life in Berlin, 1946–49 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 15. 2. There are many of these, beginning with William Sheridan Allen’s The Nazi Seizure of Power: The Experience of a Single German Town, 1922–1945 (New York: F. Watts, 1984). Recent examples include Andrew Stuart Bergerson, Ordinary Germans in Extraordinary Times: The Nazi Revolution in Hildesheim (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004); Sean Dobson, Authority and Upheaval in Leipzig, 1910–1920: The Story of a Relationship (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001); Martin Geyer, Verkehrte Welt: Revolution, Inflation und Moderne, München 1914–1924 (Gottingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, c1998); Neil Gregor, Haunted City: Nuremberg and the Nazi Past (New Haven: Yale University , 2008); Panikos Panayi, Life and Death in a German Town: Osnabrück from the Weimar Republic to World War II and Beyond (London: Tauris, 2007); Til van Rahden, Jews and other Germans: Civil Society , Religious Diversity, and Urban Politics in Breslau, 1860–1925 (Madison: Wisconsin University Press, 2008); Walter Rinderle and Bernard Norling, The Nazi Impact on a German Village (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1993); Helmut Walser Smith, The Butcher’s Tale: Murder and Anti-Semitism in a German Town (New York: Norton, 2002); and Helena Waddy, Oberammergau in the Nazi Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010). 3. Atina Grossmann, Jews, Germans, and Allies: Close Encounters in Occupied Germany (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 9. 4. Saul Friedländer, The Years of Extermination : Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939–1945 (New York: Harper Collins, 2007), xv. 5. Gerwin Kellerman, 475 Jahre Wildflecken, 1524–1999 (Wildflecken: Marktgemeinde Wildflecken, 1999); Paul Burkhardt, The Major Training Areas: Grafenwoehr/Vilseck, Hohenfels, Wildflecken (Weiden: Der neue Tag, 1984). 6. Among others, see Richard Bessel, Germany, 1945: From War to Peace (New York: Harper Collins, 2009); William I. Hitchcock, The Bitter Road to Freedom: A New History of the Liberation of Europe (New York: Free Press, 2008); Rolf-Dieter Müller and Gerd R. Ueberschär, Kriegsende 1945. Die Zerstörung des Deutschen Reiches (Frankfurt: Fischer, 1994); and Friedrich Prinz, Trümmerzeit in München: Kultur und Gesellschaft einer deutschen Großstadt im Aufbruch, 1945–1949 (Munich : Beck, 1984). 7. “Die Belegung der staatlichen Notes 234 Notes to Pages 5–6 Flüchtlingslager in Bayern am 1. Oktober, 1959,” prepared by Bayer. Staatsministerium für Arbeit und Soziale Fürsorge. StaaWü 460/1. 8. Grossmann, Jews, Germans, and Allies; Maria Höhn, GIs and Fräuleins: The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002); Sylvia Schraut, Flüchtlingsaufnahme in Württemberg -Baden 1945–1949. Amerikanische Besatzungsziele und demokratischer Wiederaufbau im Konflikt (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1995); and Hans Woller, Gesellschaft und Politik in der amerikanischen Besatzungszone : Die Region Ansbach und Fürth (Munich : Oldenbourg, 1986). 9. Harold Zink’s classic The United States in Germany, 1945–1955 (Princeton: Nostrand, 1957) has precisely one reference to the refugee issue. Jeffry Diefendorfer , Axel Frohn, and Hermann-Josepf Rupieper, eds., American Policy and the Reconstruction of West Germany, 1945–55 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993) has little more. Earl Ziemke’s The U.S. Army in the Occupation of Germany (Washington: GPO, 1975) describes the DP camps as a “kind of Army-sponsored underworld” (357). See also Kendall Gott, Mobility, Vigilance, and Justice: The U.S. Army Constabulary in Germany, 1946–1953 (Ft. Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2005). 10. John Gimbel, A German Community under American Occupation: Marburg 1945–52 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961), 127–128; Anni Baker, Wiesbaden and the Americans, 1945–2003 (Wiesbaden : Stadtarchiv Wiesbaden, 2004); see also Adam R. Seipp, “To Come as Conquerors : American Bases and the European Theater, 1941–45,” in Franklin Roosevelt and the Azores During the Two World Wars, ed. Luís N. Rodrigues (Lisbon: Fundação Luso-Americana, 2008), 323–336. 11. Sylvia Schraut, “’Make the Germans Do It’: The Refugee Problem in the American Zone of Post-War Germany,” in Forced Migration in Central and Eastern Europe , ed. Alfred J. Rieber (London: Frank Cass, 2000), 125. 12. A new wave of DP scholarship has emerged in past decade. See, among others Daniel Cohen, “Remembering PostWar Displaced Persons: From Omission to Resurrection,” in Enlarging European Memory: Migration Movements in Historical Perspective, eds. Mareike König and Rainer Ohliger (Stuttgart: Thorbecke Verlag, 2006), 87–97; Grossmann, Jews, Germans, and Allies; Laura Hilton, “Prisoners of Peace: Rebuilding Community, Identity, and Nationality in Displaced Persons Camps in Germany, 1945–1952” (PhD...


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