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GLOSSARY Agricultural Societies (Põllumeeste Seltsid)—Societies founded in the second half of the 19th century to further agricultural education and innovation. The lectures and exhibitions organized by the societies were an important aspect in the lives of small landowners, who were purchasing land and developing their own farms. The first of the societies were formed in northern Livland, which was economically more advanced than Estland (in Tartu and Pärnu in 1870, Viljandi in 1871). At first the numbers and membership were limited, but in the last half of the 1890s, forty-five new societies were established. Some of the Estonian organizations were connected to the Baltic-German agricultural organizations, such as the Livland Public Benefit and Economic Society. The political activism of the Agricultural Societies toward the end of the 19th century created significant tensions, as they were justly regarded as seedbeds for nationalism. Anketa—Biographical summary required in the Soviet era for application for employment and admission to educational institutions, often written as a free composition (without a set form to fill out). In addition to date and place of birth, educational background, and class origin, up to Stalin’s death (1953), political questions had to be answered, not only concerning oneself, but family and relatives: What one’s parents or grandparents had done during the Russian Revolution, what political parties and organizations (Home Guard, Defense League, etc.) they had belonged to, whether anyone had fought in the German Army during World War II or fled abroad. Most, if not all institutions had their cadres department and cadres officials, responsible for eliciting and keeping the documentation. After Stalin’s death the forms were simplified. Use of the anketa was discontinued at the end of the Soviet regime, though a precise endpoint has not been documented. The anketa was also a metaphor: if someone’s “anketa was not clean,” this meant they had “inappropriate” aspects in their biography—a father in the woods with the Forest Brothers, a mother in Sweden, or one had never belonged to the Young Pioneers. Baltic Chain—A 600 km long human chain from Tallinn to Vilnius on 23 August 1989, the 50th anniversary of the secret protocols of the Molotov– Ribbentrop Pact. Bases Treaty—“Mutual Assistance Pact” between Estonia and the Soviet Union on 28 September 1939 under which 25,000 Soviet troops were to be stationed in military bases on Estonian soil. The pact was to be in effect for 10 years. Naval and air bases were established on the islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, and the town of Paldiski, 50 km from Tallinn. In reality i3 Kirss.indb 511 7/17/09 5:48:01 AM 512 Glossary this pact was part of the implementation of the secret Nazi–Soviet negotiations leading to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 23 August 1939, the secret protocol of which assigned Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to the Soviet sphere of influence, in exchange for meeting additional German interests in Poland. Additional pressure was put on Estonia by the amassing of 160,000 Soviet troops (ten times the size of Estonia’s peacetime army) at the Estonian border by the second half of September; Estonian air space was violated, and after the escape of the interned Polish submarine Orzel from Tallinn harbour on 17 September, the Soviet Union claimed the right to patrol Estonia’s territorial waters. The international press regarded the mutual assistance pact as evidence of a pessimistic future for the Estonian republic. Collectivization of agriculture—The liquidation of privately-owned farms during the first decade of the Soviet Era, followed by the founding of kolkhozes and sovhozes. In the land reform initiated in 1940 and continued in 1944, the land was expropriated and declared to belong to the state. A family could keep no more than 30 hectares for private use. The first kolkhoz was founded in Saaremaa in 1947. People began joining kolkhozes in larger numbers in 1949–1951, coerced by the deportations of 1949 and the fear that surrounded them. (See Linda Põldes’ and Peep Vunder’s stories) Courland, Battle of—The battles on the Courland peninsula took place from October 1944 to May 1945. When the Red Army reached the Baltic Sea between Klaipeda (Memel) and Liepaja, over half a million German soldiers were cut off and confined on the peninsula of Courland, the so-called „Courland sack.” In the second half of March 1945, the Estonian Rifle Corps, supplemented by mobilized troops from Estonia, was brought...

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