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xvii Acknowledgments Throughout the years writing this book, my thinking about Indigenous images and image‑making has been influenced by conversations with artists, intellectuals, and scholars who expanded my understanding in innumerable ways. I owe a special debt to Larry Littlebird, Scott Momaday, and Rick Morse for sharing their stories about the making of House Made of Dawn. Victor Masayesva fielded many questions and shared resources, including the beautiful dedication image from his book Husk of Time: The Photographs of Victor Masayesva. Sherman Alexie and Chris Eyre took time from busy schedules to talk with me about Smoke Signals. Jeff Spitz, who shared his thoughts about The Return of Navajo Boy over several conversations, later provided frame enlargements and offered welcome support and feedback on the manuscript. Dustinn Craig generously shared the still image from his film Wish Henry, on July 4th, 2010, for the cover. And this project was influenced by many other filmmakers who shared films and ideas over the years, including Adrian Baker, Nanobah Becker, Greg Coyes, Michelle Danforth, Joseph Erb, Jacob Floyd, Diane Glancy, Sterlin Harjo, Melissa Henry, Simon James, Georgina Lightning, Patty Loew, Blackhorse Lowe, James Luna, Catherine Martin, Darren Kipp, Alanis Obomsawin, Randy Redroad, Leslie Marmon Silko, and Misty Upham. As I conducted research, the project benefited from the expertise of the incredible archivists and librarians at the National Museum of the American Indian’s Film and Video Center and Cultural Resources Center in New York and Washington, D.C., including Amalia Cordova, Millie Seubert, Michelle Svenson, Chris Turner, and Elizabeth Weatherford among others. NMAI programs such as the restoration and screening of the film House Made of Dawn and the 2005 “First Nations/First Features” film festival allowed me to see films not in distribution and to talk with filmmakers in person. The staff at the Library of Congress, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and xviii / Sciences Margaret Herrick Library, the University of Southern California special collections, the University of California at Los Angeles archives, and the University of Missouri libraries all provided essential research guidance. Charles Silver at the Museum of Modern Art helped me to locate the 1928 film Ramona, and Veroslav Haba at the National Film Archive in Prague provided wonderfully gracious and knowledgeable help in viewing the print. I’m also grateful to numerous individuals and organizations for providing images and permissions, including Rob Wallace at Keep America Beautiful, Inc.; Scott Krafft of the Charles Deering McCormick Library of Special Collections, Northwestern University Library; Richard Tritt of the Cumberland County Historical Society; and Claire Brandt and the staff at Eddie Brandt’s Saturday Matinee in Los Angeles. Chadwick Allen and Michelle Raheja deserve very special thanks for their generosity, intellectual rigor, and patient support. The list of people who have shared their thoughts, advice, questions, and encouragement— in conversations near and far, some fleeting and some over many years— stretches long. In and around film festivals, cinema studies conferences, and Native studies conferences, many colleagues have helped me better understand Native cinema through their questions, comments, camaraderie, and scholarship, including Susan Bernardin, Joseph Bauerkemper, Denise Cummings, Kristin Dowell, Gabriel Estrada, Michael Robert Evans, Tamara Falicov, Stephanie Fitzgerald, Faye Ginsburg, Penelope Kelsey, Angelica Lawson, Randy Lewis, Deborah Madsen, Elise Marubbio, Danika MedakSaltzman , Anya Montiel, Joshua Nelson, Dean Rader, Jolene Rickard, Ken Roemer, Channette Romero, David Delgado Shorter, Lisa Stefanoff, Michelle Stewart, David Tafler, Dustin Tahmahkera, Lisa Tatonetti, Theo Van Alst, Debra White-Stanley, Pamela Wilson, and Houston Wood. Feedback from Gerald Vizenor helped shape the project; Michael Marsden and Armando José Prats lent support from afar; Dydia DeLyser, Hugh Neely, and Phil Brigandi traded information with me as we built our understanding of Edwin Carewe’s 1928 Ramona; and Robert Warrior provided welcome advice and conversation about the film. Shirley Sneve at Native American Public Telecommunications—and the entire staff there—have created wonderful networks of filmmakers and scholars for social change. At suny Press, Gary Dunham’s enthusiasm for the project energized my writing toward the end, and I extend thanks as well to Amanda Lanne, Larin McLaughlin, James Peltz, and Murray Pomerance. An early version of chapter 1 first appeared in the Journal of Popular Film and Television in 2003 (and a revised version appears in Westerns: The Essential Journal of Popular Film and Television Collection, edited by Gary Edgerton and Michael Marsden, Routledge 2012); Acknowledgments / xix fragments of chapter 3 appeared in an earlier form in Western Folklore; and chapter 5 is expanded from a version...


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