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THE DIDACHE: TEACHING OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES Chapter 1 1 There are two ways, one of life and one of death; and great is the difference between the two ways.l 2 This is the way of life: 'First you shall love God who made you, secondly, your neighbor as yourself; 2 and whatever you would not like done to you, do not do to another.'3 3 The teaching of these words is as follows: 4 ['Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what is the merit of loving those who love you? Do not even the pagans do this? But, 'love those who hate you,'5 and you will not have an enemy. 4 'Abstain from carnal desires.'6 'If anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn the other to him,' and you will be perfect.7 'If anyone I Matt. 7.13 f. 2 Matt. 22.37-39. 6.5; Lev. 19.18. 3 Matt. 7.12. This llegative form of the 'Colden Rule' is found in some Jewish and early Christian writers. 4 The following section, from 1.3 to 2.1 is considered hy most editors to he the interpolation of some Christian writer into the supposed Jewish original of the 'Two Ways.' It contains the only unquestionable quotations from the New Testament to be found within the first six chapters, and it is lacking in hoth the ancient Latin translation of the 'Two Ways' and' in the corresponding section of Barnabas (Barn. 19). 5 Matt. !'>.44-46; Luke 6.27 f..32. 6 1 Pet. 2.11. 7 Matt. 5.39, 18. 171 172 THE DIDACHE force you to go one mile with him, go twO.'8 'If anyone takes your cloak, give him also your tunic.'9 If anyone takes what is yours, do not demand it back,IO for you have no power.l1 5 Give to everyone who asks, and ask nothing in return;12 for the Father wishes that a share of His own gifts be given to all. Blessed is the man who gives according to the commandment , for he is without blame. Woe to the man who takes. However, if the one who takes is in need, he is without blame. But should he not be in need, he shall give an account of the why and the wherefore of his taking it. And he will be put in prison and examined strictly about what he did, and 'shall not go out from there until he has paid the last cent.'13 6 But in this matter the saying also holds: 'Let your alms sweat in your hands until you know to whom you are giving.'14 Chapter 2 1 The second commandment of the Teaching is] 2 You shall not commit murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not corrupt boys. You shall not commit fornication. You shall not steal. You shall not practice magic. You shall not practice sorcery. You shall not kill an unborn child or murder a newborn infant. And you shall not desire the goods 8 Matt. 5.41. This refers to the right of officials in the Persian and Roman Empires to 'commandeer' a person's services for official husiness. 9 .'.{att. 5AO. 10 Luke 6.30. 11 This last phrase is not part of the Scriptural quotation, and its meaning is doubtful. Lake suggests 'not even if thou camt.' 12 Luke 6.30. 13 Matt. ';'26. 14 This is not a Scriptural quotation, and, as it seems to he contrary to the spirit of what precedes, may have been added by some copyist. TEACHING OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES 173 of your neighbor.1 3 You shall not swear falsely or bear false witness; nor shall you slander, or bring up past injuries. 4 You shall not be double-minded or double-tongued, for duplicity is the snare of death.2 5 Let your speech not be false or vain, but carried out in action. 6 You shall not be greedy or extortionate ; nor shall you be a hypocrite, or malicious, or proud. You shall not take evil counsel against your neighbor. 7 You shall not hate any man; but some you shall admonish,3 and pray for others, and still others you shall love more than your own life.4 Chapter 3 1 My son, flee from all wickedness and from everything like it. 2 Do not become...