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C o n t e n t s· List of Tables ix· List of Figures xi· Preface xiii 1 Introduction 1 2 Wild Guesses in an Era of Scientific Ignorance 6 3 The Ancient World 12 4 Monotheistic Religious Interpretations 19 5 The Descriptive Embryology of Male and Female Development 26 6 The Discovery of the Egg in Higher Eukaryotes 34 7 The Discovery of Sperm in Higher Eukaryotes 42 8 The Discovery of Sex Hormones 50 9 Ploidy Levels and Sex Determination 58 10 The Discovery of Sex Chromosomes 63 viii contents 11 The Balance Theory of Sex Determination 71 12 The Discovery of Sex in Microorganisms 76 13 The History and Interpretations of Hermaphrodites and Intersexes 84  14 Dosage Compensation and the Sex Chromosomes 96 15 The Discovery of Human Sex Chromosome Conditions 104 16 The Seven Sexes of Humans 111 17 The Identification and Role of Sex-Determining Genes 121 18 The History of Homosexuality 132 19 The History of Behavioral Gender Assignment 140 20 The Evolution of Sex Determination 146 21 What Does It Mean to Have an Assigned Sex? 154 22 The Quest for a Unified Theory of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality 159· Afterword 175· Appendix: Secondary Literature and the Relation of Biology to Sex and Gender 177· Glossary 191· Notes 205· Index 225 ...

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