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Fig­ures 1.1. Map of La Venta 24 1.2. Three views of world trees at La Venta 25 1.3. Reconstruction drawings of the east and west mosaic masks in the Ceremonial Court at La Venta 30 1.4. Schematic east–west cross section of Massive Offering 1 at La Venta 32 2.1. Symbolic structures of ceremonial grounds, houses, and objects serving as cosmograms on the north­ ern Great Plains 61 2.2. Quincunx cosmogram mapped on the Black Hills 69 2.3. Quartered circle cosmogram as expressed in structure of earthlodge and tipi and as mapped on the Black Hills 70 2.4. Animal trap or open circle cosmogram as mapped on the Black Hills 72 3.1. The transformations of Alcyone,“Elder Brother, Pleiades,”in Chavín monumental sculpture 95 3.2. The twin caymanic dragon canoes of the Tello Obelisk 97 4.1. The Raimondi Stone 133 4.2. The Principal Deity and friends, Gate of the Sun,Tiwanaku 135 4.3. A Staff God? Engraving on a conch shell from Spiro Mound 139 5.1. Seat found in situ at Cerro Jaboncillo 144 x Fig­ ures 5.2. Location of seats and stelae at Cerro Jaboncillo 145 5.3. A Manteño incensario 147 5.4. Clay seal with a diamond motif enclosed within a notched square 148 5.5. Manteño stelae with the Composite Being, the Displayed Female, the Standing Fig­ ure, the Orb and Crescent 150 6.1. Tuuwanasavi, the earth center on the Hopi Mesas 173 6.2. Objects interred with the Magician’s Burial 180 7.1. Sikyatki Polychrome bowl with Shalako and the Ladder Dance 188 7.2. Enclosed crosses and spirals in basketry and rock art 191 9.1. Locations of major Mississippian centers with respect to potential interaction corridor with northeast Mesoamerica 214 9.2. Conceptual history of the major art styles of the Mississippian period as a tree 220 9.3. Close iconic similarities in engraved marine shell between eastern Tennessee/north­ ern Georgia and north­ east­ ern Mesoamerica 221 9.4. Close iconic similarities between the Pottery Mound site Kiva 9 wall image and the Craig Mound (Spiro) Great Mortuary marine shell cup engraving 223 9.5. Craig B style Birdman from the Great Mortuary at Spiro 225 10.1. Annie Island pictograph 236 10.2. General study area along the west­ern region of Lake of the Woods 237 10.3. Locations available for the placement of rock art within the 2005 survey area 243 10.4. Locations of documented pictographic rock art sites within and outside of the surveyed watersheds as of 2005 244 10.5. Historical and contemporary canoe routes through the overall survey regions and locations of documented rock art sites as of 2005 245 10.6. Shannon-­­ Weaver Information Measure histogram indicating the three clusterings of potential site types 246 12.1. The Upper Great Lakes with selected sites pertinent to Midéwiwin history 266 Fig­ ures xi 12.2. Painted cross of the fourth degree of Midéwiwin on a Midé scroll 268 12.3. Duration of motifs in Cree Earth-­­ diver myths supplemented by Ojibwa variants 271 12.4. Distribution of Midé-­­ related elements in Earth-­­ diver narratives of the Ojibwa, Menomini, Potawatomi, and Siouan groups 273 12.5. Dimensions of midéwigan and Huron-­­Iroquois and Oneota longhouses 276 Enduring Motives ...


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