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Notes introduction Acknowledgments In addition to all of the remarkable people, many of whom are referenced in this volume, that brought their considerable intelligence to bear in defending this case, the lawyers, the administrators, the scholars, students, and alumni, and the friends across the country, I would like to thank the hearty members of the Of‹ce of the Provost and the Of‹ce of Undergraduate Admissions who toiled to mount this defense over so many years. Furthermore , I am indebted to Laura Calkins for her remarkable work in the Bentley Historical Library collections, and to Jo Thomas for her trenchant editorial comments. 1. Sandra Day O’Connor, writing for the majority in Grutter v. Bollinger, No. 02–241, Supreme Court, June 23, 2003, 3–4. 2. Compelling Interest, ‹led in Gratz v. Bollinger, No. 97–75321 in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, and Grutter v. Bollinger, No. 97–75928 in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, includes expert testimony by social scientists. 3. Otto Kerner, Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Of‹ce, 1968), 1. 4. Expert report of Thomas J. Sugrue, Gratz and Grutter, District Court. 5. Expert report of Claude M. Steele, Gratz and Grutter, District Court. 6. Sugrue, expert report, 26–27. 7. See also the record of scholarship on the contact hypothesis summarized in the amicus briefs in Gratz v. Bollinger and Grutter v. Bollinger, Nos. 02–516 and 02–241 in the Supreme Court of the United States, ‹led by the American Educational Research Association, Association of American Colleges and Universities, American Association for Higher Education, and American Sociological Association. Expert report of Patricia Gurin, Gratz and Gutter, District Court. 8. Arizona Republic, April 18, 2003, B-10. 9. See Angelo N. Ancheta, Revisiting “Bakke” and Diversity-Based Admissions: Constitutional Law, Social Science Research, and the University of Michigan Af‹rmative Action Cases, Civil Rights Project at Harvard University , March 2003, 10. Thomas J. Kane, “Misconceptions in the Debate of Af‹rmative Action in College Admissions,” in Chilling Admissions: The Af‹rmative Action Crisis and the Search for Alternatives, ed. Gary Or‹eld and Edward Miller (Cambridge: Civil Rights Project, Harvard University, 1998). 11. See Claude M. Steele, professor of psychology at Stanford University, and Patricia Gurin et al. in Compelling Interest. 12. Expert report of Patricia Gurin, Gratz and Grutter, District Court. 13. Peter Irons, Jim Crow’s Children: The Broken Promise of the Brown Decision (New York: Viking Penguin, 2002), 199. 14. Ibid., 198–99. 15. Ibid., 199. 16. Amicus brief ‹led by the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations in Gratz and Grutter, Supreme Court, 17. chapter 1 1. Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy, 2 vols. (New York: Pantheon, 1972). 2. Myrdal, An American Dilemma, 1:lxix. 3. I develop this concept more extensively in “Race, Equity, and Democracy: African Americans and the Struggle over Civil Rights,” in The Social Construction of Democracy, ed. George Reid Andrews and Herrick Chapman (New York: New York University Press, 1995), 193–217. 4. Dinesh D’Souza, The End of Racism (New York: Free Press, 1995). 5. Rayford Logan, The Betrayal of the Negro: From Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson (New York: Collier, 1965). 6. Numerous works treat the rise of Jim Crow and its consequences for blacks, whites, and others. For a sample read C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974); Joel Williamson, A Rage for Order: Black-White Relations in the American South since Emancipation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986); and Glenda Gilmore, Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896–1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996). notes to pages 14–22 198 7. For a delineation of the various organizations and campaigns see Robin D. G. Kelley and Earl Lewis, eds., To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), especially chaps. 5 and 6, by Noralee Frankel and Barbara Bair, respectively. Earlier discussion of the myriad new organizations that came of age after the Civil War is presented in John Hope Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom, 5th ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980), 268–94, 318–22, 349–82. A few of those institutions were schools of...


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