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Figure 1. Birobidzhan had been declared the Jewish Autonomous Region in May 1934. Cartoon by William Gropper in lCOR jouI"lIal, May 1934. Figure 2. The Yiddish inscription says: "Here the Jewish Soviet Autonomous Territory is being built." Cartoon by William Gropper in lCOR jou,."al, June 1934 Figure 3. The future Birobidzhan City in the beginning of the 19305. (Courtesy of Deutsches Architekturmuseum, Frankfurt am Main) Figure 4. October Street, Birobidzhan, beginning of the 19305. (Courtesy of Deutsd1es Architekturmuseurn, Frankfurt am Main) Figure 5. Birobidzhan City at the beginning of the 1930s: a small town composed of one- and two-story barracks-type wooden houses. (Courtesy of losif Brener, Birobidzhan) Figure 6. It did not seem that the "need" for a theater was so great: Birobidzhan railway station at the very beginning of the 1930s. (Courtesy of losif Brener, Birobidzhan) Figure 7. The future main square of Birobidzhan City, 1934: Dwellings had to be constructed , roads and bridges had to be built, and industrial and agricultural infrastructures had to be created. (Courtesy of losif Brener, Birobidzhan) Figure 8. The first stone building in Birobidzhan-the Regional Executive Committee. (Courtesy of losif Brener, Birobidzhan) Figure 9. Maket of the Birobidzhan Yiddish Theater building, by Boris Kosvintsev for the Birobidzhan City Construction Museum. (Courtesy of Holger Nath, Trier) Figure 10. The white, two-story wooden building of the theater in the fashionable "Bauhaus" style, characterized by strict lines and devoid of any "nonfunctional" ornaments . (In the author's possession) Figure 12. Mark e hagall's illustra tion to the poem "A khasene in Birobidzhan" (A Wedding in Birobidzhan), from Itsik Fefer's collection HeYlIIland, published in New York in 1944 by the !COR Association. Figure 11. Yiddish theater in Birobidzhan under construction, 1934. (In the author's possession) Figure 14. Mark Chagall's illustration "Un di klezmer shpiln ..." (And the klezmers play .. .). from Itsik Fefer's collection Heymlnnd. Figure 13. Mark Chagall's illustration to the poem "Mayn liber" (My Beloved), from Itsik Fefer's Birobidzhan collection HeYl1l1nnd. Figure 15. The MosGOSET Troupe, 1923. Sitting in the middle: Aleksei Granovski and Shloime Mikhoels. The second from the right above-Moishe Goldblat, the fourth Binyomin Zuskin. (Courtesy of ORe, Tel Aviv) Figure 16. BirGOSET's staff, 1939. From right to left from the top, 1st row: Ch. Borulia, L. Zhelkover, V. Shteinbakh, M. Bengelsdorf, M. Vainshtein, Z. Shuval, Y. Gross. 2nd row: P. Krestinetski, F. Arones, M. Zhelkover, I. Rabichev, Ch. Helfand, M. Rubinshtein, Y. Abramovich, M. Fridman. 3rd row: M. Reingold, M. Nikolaevski, B. Sirota, L. Yanovski, E. Teplitski, Sh. Basikhes, L. Kolina, S. Fridman, B. Shulman, M. Karlos. 4th row: Y. Rozenfeld, Sh. Miretski, E. Kaplan, Y. Kotointi, Y. Rubin, K. Melnikova, N. Koifman, M. Shein. (Courtesy of ORe, Tel Aviv) Figure 17. Emmanuil Kazakevich, the first administrative director of BirGOSET: "A pensive young man in a leather jacket, w hose headed soared eternally in the clouds of his poetry." Painting by Leib Zevin, in Forpost, Moscow-Birobidzhan, 1936. Figure 18. Author David Bergelson (1884-1952), tried to portray the beginning of a new and happy page in Jewish history. Print of linocut by Avrom Milcllin in Birobidzhal1er shtern, 1935. Figure 19. Avrum Aizenberg (1899-1941), BirGOSET artistic director in 1935-36, declared that the theater had to cease being provincial and go out onto the broad path of "large-scale" art. Print of Iinocut by Avrom Milchin in Birobidzhaller shtel'l1, 1935. Figure 20. Faivish Arones (18971982 ). BirGOSET actor (1935-49): "Sweet Yiddish words on his lips rang like little silver bells on a dance tambourine." (Courtesy of Mairum Arones) Figure 21. Moishe Goldblat (18961974 ), BirGOSET artistic director and actor in 1937-38, "inscribed golden pages in the history of Yiddish theater in the Soviet Union." (Courtesy of ORC, Tel Aviv) Figure 22. Yosef Gross (191172 ), the first actor to play Stalin on the Yiddish stage. (In the author's possession) Figure 23. Zhen'ka Ksidias (Yosef Gross) in the romantic play Illtervelltioll, 1934: the actors got into trouble dealing with the scenery. (In the author's possession) Figure 24. Evening of Sholem Aleichell1, 1934: The Birobidzhan public, glad of the very fact that it now had its own theater, adopted a quite indulgent attitude toward the "student-level" of the work. (In the author's possession) Figure 25. Evening of Sholem A leichem, 1934: "Children who had put on the clothes of their parents, fastened on little cotton wool beards, and started imitating the adults." Below on the...



Subject Headings

  • Birobidzhan (Russia) -- Ethnic relations.
  • Theater, Yiddish -- Ukraine -- History.
  • Theater, Yiddish -- Russia (Federation) -- Birobidzhan -- History -- 20th century.
  • Jewish theater -- Russia (Federation) -- Birobidzhan -- History -- 20th century.
  • Birobidzhan State Yiddish Theater.
  • Jewish theater -- Soviet Union -- History.
  • Jewish actors -- Soviet Union.
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