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Pseudonyms and Personae of Marianna Kolosova: Creating a New Feminine Voice in Emigration Carol Ueland The woman who is the subject of this article never wrote using her own name: her given name appears to have been Rimma Ivanovna Vinogradova. Her tombstone in the Russian cemetery in Santiago, Chile identifies her by this name, with the dates May 26, 1903 to June 10, 1964, below which is inscribed "Marianna Kolosova. Russian national poetess," her most famous pseudonym and the way she will be referred to in this article1 She wrote both prose and poetry, the prose under the pseudonym "L. Nikitin." But her more important literary legacy is her poetry. Under various pen names-Marianna Kolosova, Elena Insarova, Dzhungar, and N. Iurtin- she became the most successful woman poet of the Russian emigre community in the Far East2 As Jan Paul Hinrichs notes, she and Valerii Pereleshin were the only two poets of the Far Eastern emigration to make a living from literary work 3 By her own account, Kolosova began writing poems in August 1925, and was close to, but not a formal member of the Churaevka literary circle in Harbin . In 1928 she published her first book of poems, An Army of Songs (Armiia pesen). In that year she also became a regular contributor to Rubez" (Border), the leading journal of the Russian Far East4 For the next ten years, her poetry appeared on its pages, usually bi-weekly, with the majority of the poems attributed to Marianna Kolosova, but also under the name "Elena Insarova," 1 This information comes from a description of Kolosova's tombstone inscription in Medvedenko, "Takaia sud'ba." Biographical information on Kolosova can be found in Hinrichs, "Kolosova, Marianna Ivanovna," and as encyclopedia entries in Chelysheva (Literatumoe zarubezh'e), Khisamutdinov (Rossiiskaia emigratsiia v Kitae), and Nikoliukin (Pisateli Russkogo zarubezhiia). 2 Kolosova's use of the Nikitin pseudonym is noted by her contemporary Valerii Pereleshin (Hauth, Russian Literary and Ecclesiastical Life, 46). I have located under this pseudonym only one short story, which is an adventure tale. My colleague Olga Bakich has found a reference to Kolosova's use of the Iurtin pseudonym in a letter from M. S. Rokotov, the editor of the Harbin newspaper Rubezh from 1929 to 1941, to Iu. V. Kruzhenshtern-Peterets of 26 May 1975. 3 Hinrichs, "Kolosova, MarialUla Ivanovna," 310. 4 The only information on her literary biography that comes from Kolosova herself is from an interview under the rubric "Smotr." Mapping the Feminine: Russian Women and Cultural Difference. Hilde Hoogenboom, Catharine Theimer Nepomnyashchy, and Irina Reyfman, eds. Bloomington, IN: Siavica Publishers, 2008, 249-62. 250 CAROL UELAND that of Turgenev's heroine in On the Eve (Nakanune, 1860), and much less frequently under the presumably male pseudonyms "Dzhungar" and "N. Iurtin." In this article I will explore the relationship between her various pen names and their accompanying personae. However, at the outset it is significant to note that her book publications appeared only under the name Marianna Kolosova. After An Army of Songs, she published God Save Russia (Gospodi , spasi Rossiiu!, 1930), I Will Not Submit (Ia ne pokorius', 1932) and To the Ringing of Swords (Na zvon mechei, 1934), all in Harbin. The Bronze Hum (Mednyi gul, 1937) was published in Shanghai. Quite a few of the individual poems contained in these five collections were first published under her other pseudonyms , and much of her poetry, perhaps as much as half of her work published in periodicals, never appeared in a collected editions Kolosova's use of multiple pseudonyms and personae reflects her need to appeal to several generations of readers in tl1e Russian community in China as they struggled with questions of national identity in exile and the role of women in the preservation of that identity. In view of Kolosova's relative obscurity in Russian literary history, I will begin with a brief summary of her biography, to the extent that it has been recovered . She was the daughter of a priest who was killed during the Revolution by militant atheists. According to her friend, tl1e poet Nataliia Reznikova, before her emigration to China she had a fiance, a White Army officer who was killed in front of her6 Like many Russians living in the Far East she fled to China to escape the civil war at the beginning of the 1920s. In Harbin she studied at the Russian Law School. She married A. N. Pokrovskii, the cofounder of the Russian Fascist Party in...

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