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205 Notes Chapter 2 1. For some geographers, circulation refers to temporary moves only, with any permanent shifts of residence, no matter what the distance, considered migration (Chapman and Prothero 1985a, b). The conceptual boundary between circulation and migration is unclear however, especially since it is difficult to define what length of stay qualifies as temporary or permanent and the fact that many migrants maintain the option of returning home and frequently do so (Chapman and Prothero 1985b:6–10). Some more permanent moves, such as the transfer of spouses and residential moves between communities, that I consider forms of population circulation could be classified as migration under other frameworks. In this book, I distinguish between migration and population circulation largely in terms of distance because most recent discussions of migration in the ancient Southwest have primarily considered migration to be interregional moves with little likelihood of return (Bernardini 2005; Clark 2001; Lyons 2003). Thus, my usage of population circulation encompasses a myriad of different types of movement , including temporary travels for exchange, ceremony, and resource gathering , as well as residential moves, that occur within a region and for which there is a relatively high likelihood of return. Chapter 3 1. In the Cibola area, archaeologists typically use the term “aggregation” to refer to both the increasing concentration of population into larger sites as well as the process by which sites become more closely spaced through time. Thus, for the Pueblo III period, when many room blocks are densely clustered on the landscape with often a few tens of meters between them, Cibola archaeologists often refer to these as “aggregated settlements.” “Nucleation” refers to the process by which entire local populations come to reside in single large pueblos, which in the Pueblo IV period contained hundreds of rooms and were in some cases occupied by one thousand or more people (see Kintigh 1994, 1996, 2007; Kintigh et al. 1996, 2004). 206 notes Chapter 6 1. The “best” or “strongest” solutions were identified using the KMEANS and KMPLT programs in Tools for Quantitative Analysis in Archaeology (see Kintigh 2002 for methodology). For sake of comparison, I also ran a Ward’s hierarchical cluster analysis. In most cases, the clusters defined by k-means and Ward’s method are nearly identical, suggesting these clusters are quantitatively robust (see Baxter 1994:165–67 for a discussion of the benefits of comparing results from multiple methods). Most of the differences are attributable to how the different algorithms dealt with room blocks that are outliers to the main distribution of sites. 2. Large, early nucleated pueblos containing hundreds of rooms are also present during the AD 1200s outside of the Cibola region in the Point of Pines area of Arizona. The best example is Turkey Creek (Lowell 1991). How these settlements relate to those of earlier periods is unclear (Clark et al. 2006; Haury 1989). Chapter 7 1. The Tinaja sample is slightly different than those from the other settlement groups. Nearly all of the Tinaja group consists of a dozen closely spaced room blocks (see fig. 3.10). Because of the close proximity of these room blocks, in many cases it is difficult to associate specific collection units with particular room blocks as was done elsewhere. Thus, I aggregated multiple collection units from the Tinaja group into four spatially distinct sampling areas that roughly correspond with major spatial divisions of the group (i.e., central hilltop as Area 4, plaza area to southwest as Area 1, etc.). No collections large enough for INAA sampling were available from more distant pueblos in the settlement group. Chapter 8 1. Frequent mobility may also account for the enormous number of pueblo rooms built in the El Morro Valley during the mid- to late AD 1200s. If pueblos were occupied for short periods of time, and especially if they were part of a larger settlement system that linked the Pescado Basin and El Morro Valley through frequent population circulation, high population estimates for the area may need to be revised significantly downward. ...


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