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Preface and Acknowledgments A Note on the Texts, Translations, and Annotations In putting together this volume, I attempted to select readings representative of the major trends and individuals who debated the nature of Jewish peoplehood in the diaspora. Few of the writers included were associated with diaspora nationalism as an ideology or a movement. Several considered themselves Zionists or were sympathetic to Zionism, and others were not nationalist at all. The only criterion I applied to each selection was whether it grappled with the question of the Jews’ continued existence in the diaspora as a people, irrespective of Jewish territorial concentration or political sovereignty. My goal was to strike a balance between foundational texts by recognizable names and works by individuals (in one case, by an institution) who may be less well known now but who had a significant impact in their own day. My selective bias was toward translations of works previously inaccessible to the English reader and, to a lesser extent, important works originally written in English. In the case of Simon Dubnov, Nathan Birnbaum’s “Jewish Autonomy,” and I. L. Peretz, I considered the existing translations for the key texts selected to be incomplete or inadequate enough to require new translations. The other items translated here, with the exception of the piece by Simon Rawidowicz, have not previously been published in English. In addition to what is mentioned in the Suggestions for Further Reading, students looking for more English primary sources relating to diaspora nationalism will find some relevant materials in the anthologies edited by Lucy Dawidowicz (The Golden Tradition: Jewish Life and Thought in Eastern Europe), Joshua Fishman (Never Say Die! A Thousand Years of Yiddish in Jewish Life and Letters), Arthur Hertzberg (The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader), and Jehuda Reinharz and Paul Mendes-Flohr (The Jew in the Modern World: A Documentary History). The question of how to preserve, reconstruct, or build a new Jewish peoplehood in the diaspora germinated in the late nineteenth century in the region of the world where most Jews lived at that time, the Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires. The question also emerged in the areas of the most significant new Jewish immigration—in particular, the United States and to a lesser degree France (I discuss the specific reasons why diaspora nationalism emerged in these places and not elsewhere in the section of my introductory essay titled “The xii | P r e fac e a n d A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s Geography of Diaspora Nationalism”). I thus organized the volume’s sections according to what I see as three overlapping phases in the debate about how to preserve Jewish nationality, or peoplehood, in the diaspora. The first, “From Haskala to National Renaissance,” includes essays that deal with the question of how to preserve or build Jewish peoplehood in the context of multiethnic empires. The second, “Socialism and the Question of Jewish Peoplehood,” deals primarily with the question of how to redefine Jewish peoplehood in the context of radical societal reconstruction (whether real or desired). The third and final section, “Preservation and Reconstruction in the Republics,” deals with the question of how to maintain Jewish autonomy and national self-consciousness in the context of liberal democratic states. Although Jewish “diasporism” still exists today, this anthology focuses on diaspora nationalism before the creation of the State of Israel in 1948. The essay by Simon Rawidowicz appears as the volume’s epilogue because it the only one in the volume written after that time. Where possible, I have included whole texts or complete chapters. Where this is not the case, within the text “[. . .]” indicates where a section has been removed . My annotations, distinguished from the authors’ by square brackets, aim primarily to fill in where possible details that the author presumed the reader already knows, but that may not be familiar to the modern reader. I tried to leave interpretation and editorializing to my introductory essay and headnotes. All of the sources I drew on to write the headnotes and annotations appear in the Suggestions for Further Reading and/or the footnotes in my introductory essay, with the important exceptions of the helpful online resources Encyclopedia Judaica and the yivo Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. Transliterations follow the style of the Library of Congress for Russian and German, the style of the yivo Institute for Yiddish, and the Academy of the Hebrew Language 2006 guidelines for Hebrew. For...


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