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introduction. thinking of me thinking of you: sympathetic realism 1. Accounts of sympathy are many. The following list is partial, and supplemented in this and later chapters. These texts, not mentioned elsewhere, treat sympathy as a central concept and roughly fit my historical time frame: Parrinder; Ermarth, “George Eliot’s Conception”; Adams, “Gyp’s Tale”; Cvetkovich; Arata, “Realism, Sympathy”; Hinton; Rai; Gottlieb; and Nieland. 2. The exploding interest in cognitive science among literary critics makes any complete list of relevant titles impractical. For an introduction to the field, one might start with Damasio, Turner, and Zunshine. 3. Lanzoni 279. In Science, Stephen associates sympathy with altruism. On Stephen’s evolutionary metaphors for sympathy, see Richards. 4. Smith, Theory of Moral Sentiments (hereafter TMS), 10. Two useful Web sites are “Adam Smith’s Lost Legacy,”, and the International Adam Smith Society, 5. Sympathy is regularly linked to identification. Nancy Armstrong, discussing Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein in How Novels Think, writes, “The monster’s propensity for violence stems from . . . the fact that no human who sees him can sufficiently tolerate his difference to perform the leap of sympathetic identification” (74). In William A. Cohen’s “Envy,” sympathy “forestalls and defeats envy through its forms of identification, incorporation, and selflessness” (302). 6. Sully 471. Sully was one of several Mind contributors “anxious not to lose sight of the social aspect of aesthetics in an atmosphere where aesthetics was increasingly grounded in a physiology of pleasure” (Lanzoni 282). 7. Darwin, Expression 74. There are many accounts of Darwin’s treatment of the emotions , far fewer on his treatment of sympathy. Psomiades, in an unpublished paper (“How to Make People Like You”), argues that Darwin “provided a new ‘developmental narrative of biological-model sympathy’ to replace Adam Smith’s ‘exchange narrative of economicmodel sympathy’” (Kreilkamp 107). 8. Critics sometimes characterize the “emotional turn” in literary criticism as a turn away from mind and spirit, toward the body. See Carolyn Williams. “In our present time,” she writes, “it seems that instead of hoc credo—or even cogito—we have ‘I feel’ as the most Notes 164 n o t e s t o p a g e s 6 – 1 6 substantive, persuasive claim of the subject” (48). On the feeling of reading, see Dames and the book from which my phrasing derives, Ablow, Feeling of Reading. 9. Oncken published “The Consistency of Adam Smith” in 1897. See also his 1898 essay “The Adam Smith Problem.” 10. Tribe, “Das Adam Smith” 514. Tribe notes that the Germans undertook this project without easy access to German editions of TMS: “Most of those who wrote in Germany about TMS had not read the book” (518). 11. Tribe, “Das Adam Smith” 515, n. 5. See also Buckle. 12. Additional allusions to Smith appear in Robert Burns, “To a Louse” (1786); Maria Edgeworth, Ennui (1809); Thomas Carlyle, “Signs of the Times” (1829); John Stuart Mill, Autobiography (written in the 1850s but published in 1873); Mary Margaret Busk, “Machinery ” (1837); and Elizabeth Gaskell, Mary Barton (1848) and North and South (1855). John Ruskin describes Smith as “that half-bred and half-witted Scotchman who had taught the deliberate blasphemy that ‘thou shalt hate the Lord thy God, damn his laws, and covet thy neighbour’s goods’” (91). In Invisible Hand, Courtemanche surveys the nineteenth-century fictional afterlife of Smith’s most lasting metaphor. 13. Bagehot 17, 19–20. See also Haldane. 14. Lowe 9. Many critics have been interested in Hume’s influence on late-eighteenthand nineteenth-century literature and culture, including Pinch, Strange Fits; Bellamy; and Gallagher, Nobody’s Story. 15. The two most familiar accounts, respectively, are in Watt’s Myths and Barthes’s Rustle of Language. 16. Duncan writes of Hogg’s Confessions, “Gil-Martin’s art collapses the system of individual differences that sympathy, in Smith’s account, was meant to secure” (introduction xxxiii). chapter 1. going along with others: adam smith and the realists 1. Brown 226. Brown’s schema includes (1) medieval realism, which treats general, universal categories as real; (2) “formal realism,” which treats particulars as real; and (3) causal realism, which locates the real in rational relationships and is hostile to arbitrary interference. On Watt’s formal realism, see Rise. 2. Shaw 106. Two Web sites devoted to the topic of realism have compiled a fuller bibliography than is included here: and (on American realism) www


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