publisher colophon

Index

A

Access Controlled: The Shaping of Power, Rights, and Rule in Cyberspace, 3, 5, 29, 137, 196

Ahmadiyya community, 344

Amazon.com, Wikileaks and, 149

Anonymous 2011 attack, 33–34

Anwar Ibrahim, 43–44, 46

Aquino, Benigno, 116–118

Arab League, 32, 33

Arbor Networks, 139

Architectures, 67, 84

Asia, 225–240. See also specific countries

cyber attacks in, 232

Internet filtering in, 230–231

Internet in, 226–227

Internet surveillance in, 231–232

legal and regulatory frameworks in, 228–229

Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 32

Authority, crisis of, 22, 35–37

B

Baidu, 189, 277

Bangladesh, 241–250

background on, 242–243

cybercrime in, 246

economy of, 243–244

“Everyone Draw Mohammed Day” in, 233, 245

freedom of expression in, 11–12, 243, 245–246

human rights in, 243

information access in, 246

Internet access in, 244

Internet blocking in, 245

Internet filtering in, 230, 245

Internet in, 243–245

Internet surveillance in, 246–247

ISPs in, 244

key indicators on, 242

legal and regulatory framework in, 11–12, 228, 245–246

ONI testing results on, 241, 247

results at a glance for, 241

SEA-ME-WE 4 connection of, 244

Barisan Nasional, 43, 56, 324–325, 329

Bauxite mining protest, 133–136

Berkman Center for Internet and Society, 138, 140–141

BGP hijacks/leaks, 187–188

Bias, in Malaysian blogosphere, 52, 53

Bilingualism, 54

Biznet Networks, 316

BlackBerry

in India, 203, 230, 232, 304

in Indonesia, 231, 315

in Pakistan, 231

Blog/blogosphere, 7

in Burma, 258

in China, 278, 281

DDoS-resistant, 135

in India, 304–305

in Iran, 31

in Malaysia. See Malaysian sociopolitical blogosphere

in Philippines, 124–126

in South Korea, 356

in Vietnam, 390–391

Bloggers for Malaysia, 48

Botnets, 13, 133–136, 140–141, 391

Burma, 5, 16, 153–176, 251–269

attack threat assessment in, 168–170

background for, 252–254

citizen journalists in, 255–256

distributed denial-of-service attacks in, 153–154, 156–158, 232–234, 260–261

economic development in, 256

elections in, 253–254

freedom of expression in, 153, 257–258

hacker community of, 167–170

information controls in, 155–158

Internet access in, 155, 227, 254–255

Internet blocking in, 261–262

Internet cafés in, 11, 232, 254

Internet filtering in, 141, 155, 255, 257–259, 261

Internet slowdowns/shutdowns in, 156, 255–256, 259

Internet surveillance in, 258–259

ISPs in, 256–257

key indicators on, 252

legal and regulatory frameworks in, 257–258

Mizzima News defacement attacks in, 154, 158–166

ONI testing results on, 251, 261–262

Printers and Publishers Registration Act in, 155

public access centers in, 254

results at a glance for, 251

Saffron Revolution in, 153–154, 156–158, 252–253, 260

State Peace and Development Council of, 153, 155, 170, 252, 253, 258–259

Union Solidarity and Development Party of, 253

Video and Television Law in, 155

C

Censorship. See also Internet surveillance

agents of, 66–68

gender-based, 65–81. See also at Malaysia

preproduction, 67

self-, 67, 91, 92, 279

violent forms of, 67, 68

Child pornography regulation, 9–10, 74

Chilton, Gen. Kevin P., 33

China, 5, 12, 15, 177–194, 271–298

background on, 272–276

Baidu in, 189, 277

Beijing Olympics in, 273

BGP hijacks/leaks and, 187–188

blogosphere in, 278, 281

censorship spillover from, 186–187

corporate regulation in, 196–199, 204–205, 274–275, 281–282

corporations in, 196–199, 204–205, 206, 281–282

counterfeit drug campaign in, 282

cyber espionage and, 188–190, 232, 285–286

domain names in, 183–184, 283–284

economy of, 190–192, 272

Fifty Cent Party in, 13, 278

Golden Shield project in, 282–283

Google in, 12, 189, 230, 274–275, 277, 285

Great Firewall of, 181, 186–187, 278

Green Dam filtering in, 17, 278

human flesh search engines in, 278

human rights in, 273–274

information access in, 277

intermediary liability in, 24, 197

international Internet perspective of, 181–182

Internet access in, 227, 272, 276

Internet blocking in, 274–275, 287, 288

Internet cafés in, 276, 284

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers and, 182–184

Internet filtering in, 8–11, 196, 278–279, 286–287

Internet Governance Forum and, 3–4, 184–185

Internet information service providers in, 280, 284

Internet news information services in, 280

Internet politics model and, 178–182

Internet surveillance in, 197, 282–285

ISPs in, 277, 284

just-in-time filtering in, 279

key indicators on, 272

legal and regulatory frameworks in, 228, 229, 279–282

Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of, 277

mobile devices in, 276–277, 284–285

networked authoritarianism of, 191–192, 196–199

networked nationalism of, 180–182

ONI testing results on, 271, 286–288

online gambling regulation in, 282

pornography regulation in, 282

real-name registration in, 283, 284

reform process of, 190–191

Regional Internet Registries and, 185

results at a glance for, 271

root servers in, 186–187

self-censorship in, 279

social media in, 280–281

State Secrets Law of, 281–282

Tibetan protests and, 273

TOM-Skype in, 12, 14, 285

transformation path and, 190, 191

Urumqi riots in, 273–274

China Internet Illegal Information Reporting Center, 279

China Internet Network Information Center, 283–284

Chinese language, 27

Chiranuch Premchaipron, 104, 106

Citizen Internet actions, 13–14

Citizen Media Law Project, 138, 140–141

Clinton, Hillary, 182, 275

Collateral filtering, 305, 345–346

Collective action, 7

Commonwealth of Independent States, 8

Corporate social responsibility, 195–196, 205–207

Corporations, 195–215

blog policy in, 124–125

in China, 196–199, 204–206, 281–282

employee Internet use in, 121, 123–124

free expression vs. defamation risk in, 124–126

government demands on, 12, 25

in India, 202–206

intermediary liability of, 24, 89–92, 197

Internet access vs. security in, 124

in Internet regulation, 17–18

Internet surveillance by, 12–13, 197

in Philippines, 121, 123–124

pornography use in, 123

in South Korea, 199–202, 206

c99shell, 159, 161–162

Cyber-conservatives, 179

Cybercrime, 27–29, 32

Cyber espionage, 188–190, 232, 285–286

Cyber-reactionaries, 179

Cyber security, 34

Cyberspace

authority crisis in, 22, 35–37

concept of, 6–7

demographic shifts in, 25–28

evolution of, 23–25

metaphors of, 15, 26

principles of, 22

Cyberspace contestation, 14–18, 21–41

authority crisis and, 22, 35–37

criminal activity and, 28–29

demographic shifts and, 25–28

ecosystem dynamism and, 23–25

national identity and, 29–34

security and, 34

state power and, 29–34

Cybertroppers, 56–57

Cyberwarfare, 16, 29–34

D

Data-mining technology, in Iran, 30–31

Defacement attacks, 139

in Burma, 154, 158–161

investigation of, 159–166

relative significance of, 142–143

Democracy index, 221–223

Democratic Voice of Burma, 153–155, 157

Demographics, 25–28, 32

Denationalized liberalism, 179, 180, 182

Denial-of-service attacks, 13, 33–34. See also Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks

Developing world, Internet users in, 25–28, 32

Digital opportunity index, 222, 223

Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, 133–151, 232

botnets in, 133–136, 140–141, 391

in Burma, 141, 153–154, 232

governmental sources of, 147–148

Internet filtering and, 141

IP address blackholing response to, 145

ISP response to, 143–145

in Malaysia, 46, 47

multiple attack types with, 138–142

protection service response to, 146–147

relative significance of, 142–143

research on, 136–138

resource consumption reduction response to, 146

response to, 143–149

server/bandwidth addition response to, 145

size of, 140

software-related responses to, 143–144

sources of, 147–148, 285–286

survey on, 137–138

in Vietnam, 133–136, 147, 390–391

against Wikileaks, 148, 149

Distrust, in Malaysian blogosphere, 52

“Doha Declaration on Cybersecurity,” 33

Downtime, unexplained, 139

E

Educational institutions

blog policy in, 125

high-bandwidth site access in, 121, 122

Internet access in, 119–120

Internet availability in, 120

pornography blocking in, 120–121

Egypt

Internet Governance Forum in, 3–4

Internet shutdown in, 4, 23, 156

Vodaphone in, 25

Elections

in Bangladesh, 242

in Burma, 253–254

Internet activity and, 13, 30–31

in Iran, 30–31

in Malaysia, 44, 45, 54–55, 57, 72, 325

in Pakistan, 340

in Philippines, 116–117

in South Korea, 357

in Thailand, 372–373

Emergency Decree on Government Administration in State of Emergency, of Thailand, 91, 93

Employee productivity, Internet use and, 117

English language, 27

“Everyone Draw Mohammed Day,” 233, 245, 314, 342–343, 346

F

Facebook

in Bangladesh, 230, 245

in Malaysia, 330

in Pakistan, 342–343

in South Korea, 359

in Thailand, 374

Feminist knowledge, 71–72

Fifty Cent Party, 13, 278

Filtering. See Internet filtering

Fluffi Bunni, 167

Free Malaysia Today, 46

G

Gallie, W. B., 35

Gambling regulation, in China, 282

Gender-based censorship, 65–81. See also at Malaysia

Gender Development Index, 69

Gender Empowerment Measure, 69

GhostNet, 29, 188

Gibson, William, 26

Global governmentality, 179, 180

Global Network Initiative, 16

Google

in bauxitevietnam.info DDoS attack, 134, 149

in China, 12, 189, 230, 274–275, 285

in India, 203, 204, 303

in Italy, 24

in South Korea, 201

Governance, 221, 223

Great Firewall of China, 181, 186–187, 278

“Great Firewall of China” banner, 3–4

Green Dam filtering, 17, 278

Green Revolution, 30–31

Gulf Cooperation Council, 32, 33

H

HBGary, 33–34

Htun, Lynn, 165–166, 168–169

Human Development Index, 69

I

Inclusivity, in Malaysian blogosphere, 52–53

India, 5, 202–205, 299–308

background on, 300

collateral filtering in, 305

Computer Emergency Response Team of, 302

corporate Internet blocking in, 203–204

corporations in, 202–206

cyberwarfare in, 33

freedom of expression in, 301

Google in, 203, 204, 303, 304

Information Technology Act of, 202, 203, 302

intermediary liability in, 24

Internet access in, 202, 227, 300–301

Internet cafés in, 301, 303

Internet filtering in, 202–203, 301–305

Internet surveillance in, 303–304

ISPs in, 301, 304–305

key indicators on, 300

legal and regulatory frameworks in, 228, 301–303

mobile devices in, 202, 227, 304

ONI testing results on, 299, 304–305

police-initiated Internet blocking in, 303

Research in Motion in, 304

results at a glance for, 299

Skype in, 304

Indonesia, 309–322

Anti-Pornography Law of, 313–314

background on, 310–311

economy of, 310–312

Electronic Information and Transaction Law of, 313, 314

“Everyone Draw Mohammed Day” in, 314

freedom of expression in, 310–311

Internet access in, 227, 311

Internet blocking in, 312

Internet filtering in, 25, 312–313, 316–317

Internet surveillance in, 315

ISPs in, 311, 312, 315–316

key indicators on, 310

legal and regulatory frameworks in, 228–229, 313–314

mobile devices in, 227

ONI testing results on, 309, 315–317

pornography regulation in, 312–314

religion in, 311

results at a glance for, 309

social media in, 311

IndosatM2, 315–316

Information Warfare Monitor, 154

Innovation, 7, 21

Institutional Internet use, 115–131. See also at specific countries

competing values in, 115–116, 126–128

corporate, 121, 123–124

educational, 119–122

governmental, 116–119

Intermediary liability, 24, 89–92, 197

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 66–67

International Telecommunication Union, 183

Internationalized Domain Names, 183

Internet access and regulation, 6–18. See also Cyberspace contestation

phase 1 (open commons), 6–8

phase 2 (access denied), 8–10

phase 3 (access controlled), 10–14

phase 4 (access contested), 14–18, 21–41

territorialization of, 36

Internet blocking

in Bangladesh, 245

in Burma, 261–262

in China, 274–275, 287

in India, 203–204, 303

in Indonesia, 312

just-in-time, 13, 156, 231

in Pakistan, 342–343, 346

in Philippine educational institutions, 120–121

in Thailand, 88–89

in Vietnam, 392

Internet cafés, 11

in Burma, 11, 232, 254

in China, 276, 284

in India, 301, 303

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, 178, 182–184

Internet filtering, 5, 8–10, 230–231

in Bangladesh, 230, 245

in Burma, 141, 155, 255, 257–258, 261

in China, 8–11, 196, 278–279, 286–287

citizen circumvention of, 10

in democratic states, 9–10

distributed denial-of-service attacks and, 141

inconsistency in, 9, 231

in India, 202–203, 301–305

in Indonesia, 25, 312–313, 316–317

in Iran, 30

just-in-time, 279

in Malaysia, 47, 74, 230

in Pakistan, 230, 342–344

in Philippines, 230

public reaction to, 17

relative magnitude of, 220–221

in Singapore, 8–9

in South Korea, 230

state expansion of, 9, 34

in Thailand, 84, 86–101, 103–106, 230, 374–375, 378–379

in Vietnam, 230, 387–388, 392–393

Internet governance, 178–179

Internet Governance Forum, 3–4, 184–185

Internet penetration, 27

Internet politics

conceptual model of, 178–182

cybercrime and, 29

Internet regulation, 10–14, 16–17, 21, 228–229. See also at specific countries

corporations in, 17–18

Global Network Initiative and, 16

locus of control issues in, 12–13

public reaction to, 16–17

Internet Service Providers (ISPs)

in Bangladesh, 244

in Burma, 256–257

in China, 277

in distributed denial-of-service attacks, 143–145

government policies toward, 12–13

in India, 301

in Indonesia, 311, 312, 315–316

in Malaysia, 326, 330

in Pakistan, 341–342, 345–346

in South Korea, 353, 360

in Thailand, 373, 378–379

in Vietnam, 387, 391–392

Internet surveillance, 231–232

agents of, 67–68

in Bangladesh, 246–247

in Burma, 258–259

in China, 197, 282–285

by corporations, 12–13, 197

in India, 303–304

in Indonesia, 315

in Malaysia, 329–331

in Pakistan, 345

in South Korea, 358–360

in Thailand, 376–378

in Vietnam, 390

Intrusion attack, 139–142

relative significance of, 142–143

IPv4, 35

IPv6, 35–36

Iran, 29–31

Iranian Cyber Army, 13–14, 31

Irrawaddy, The, 153–158, 260

Italy, intermediary liability in, 24

J

Just-in-time blocking, 13, 156, 231, 279

K

K-Internet, 201–202

Kazakhstan, 36

Kummer, Markus, 4

L

Laws, 67, 84

Lim, Pamela, 71

Linguistic communities, 27–28, 54, 55

M

Malay language, 54

Malaysia, 15, 43–63, 323–337. See also Malaysian sociopolitical blogosphere

adult content censorship in, 74–75

Anti-Corruption Act of, 329

background on, 324–325

Barisan Nasional in, 43, 56, 324–325, 329

bumiputera of, 68

Communication and Multimedia Content Forum of, 74

Computer Crimes Act of, 329

cyber sedition guidelines in, 327

cybertroopers in, 56–57

defamation suits in, 46, 47, 327–328

distributed denial-of-service attacks in, 46, 47

elections in, 44, 45, 54–55, 57, 72, 325

Facebook in, 330

feminist knowledge in, 71–72

first-generation controls in, 45–47

freedom of expression in, 66, 71–72, 324, 326–327

gender disparity in, 69, 71

imagined community of, 69

Internal Security Act of, 327

Internet access in, 70, 226–227, 325–326

Internet filtering in, 47, 74, 230

Internet regulation in, 44–48, 72–75

Internet surveillance in, 72–75, 329–331

ISPs in, 46, 326, 330

key indicators on, 324

legal and regulatory framework in, 44–48, 72–75, 229, 326–329

Ministry of Information, Communications, and Culture of, 72–73

mobile devices in, 227

Multimedia Super Corridor project of, 70, 325–326

MyKad card in, 75

MyProcurement.com in, 56

non-bumiputera of, 68

Official Secrets Act of, 327

on-line privacy in, 73

on-line religious material in, 74

ONI testing results on, 66, 323, 331

Pakatan Rakyat in, 325

Personal Data Protection Bill of, 73, 329

pornography regulation in, 74–75

Printing Presses and Publications Act of, 325

professional vs. nonprofessional bloggers in, 47

public sphere in, 69–70

race in, 49, 68–69, 324–325

registration requirements in, 46–48, 330–331

results at a glance for, 323

second-generation controls in, 45–48

sexist language in, 71–72

sexual norms of, 68–69

sodomy trial in, 43–44

third-generation controls in, 56–57

Malaysia Multimedia and Communications Act, 70, 73

Malaysia Today, 46, 47, 70, 330

Malaysiakini, 44, 70, 328

Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC), 46, 47, 57, 58, 328

Malaysian Insider, 70

Malaysian sociopolitical blogosphere, 43–63, 327–329

age range in, 50

bias in, 52, 53

content filtration in, 54–55

defamation suits and, 46, 47

in elections, 44, 45

event-specific blogs in, 57

as fifth estate, 48–49

“flash mobs” in, 48

government dialogue with, 58–59

inclusivity in, 52–53

information intake in, 54

information synthesis in, 55

link structure of, 55

MCMC proceedings against, 46, 47, 57, 328–329

norms of, 51–53

peer-production discourse of, 54–56

physical clustering of, 49–50

as political catalyst, 49

racial perspectives in, 49

real-world networks and, 50–51

regulatory backlash in, 44, 47–48, 55

responsibility in, 52, 53

size of, 50

social-psychological rewards of, 51

topicality in, 53

Malware, 28, 285–286

Manila, 2010 tourist hijacking in, 118–119

Markets, 67, 84

Media administration, 67

Mizzima News, 154, 157–166, 260

Mobile technologies, 24–25, 27, 36, 227

in China, 276–277, 284–285

filtering of, 230–231

in India, 202, 227

in Indonesia, 227

in Malaysia, 227

in Vietnam, 227

Multilingualism, 54

MyProcurement.com, 56

N

Narus, 34

Nation-state. See also specific countries

in Internet politics, 29–34, 178–182

National Alliance of Bloggers, 47–48

Nationalism, 69

Nepal, Internet shutdown in, 156

Networked authoritarianism, 191–192, 196–199

Networked nationalism, 179–180

of China, 180–182

Networking hierarchy, in Internet politics, 178–182

Nokia-Siemens, in Iran, 31

Norms, 84

abstract, 51–53

censorship and, 67, 68

concrete, 52, 53

in Malaysia, 51–53, 68–69

in Thailand, 101–103

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 32

North Korea, 32, 230, 352–353, 357–358

Nose4News, 52

NSTP Corporation, 46, 47

NutGraph, The, 70

O

Offline attacks, 139, 142

Olive Green Complex, 163–165, 168–169

Ooi, Jeff, 47–49, 52

Open commons concept, 6–8, 24

OpenNet Initiative (ONI), 8, 219–223. See also at specific countries

Operation Aurora, 33

Orkut, 303

P

Pacific Plans, Inc., 125

Pakatan Rakyat (PR), 43–44, 56–57

Pakistan, 339–350

Ahmadiyya community in, 344

background on, 340–341

blasphemy laws in, 343–344

collateral filtering in, 345–346

“Everyone Draw Mohammed Day” in, 342–343, 346

human rights in, 340–341, 343

Inter-Ministerial Committee for the Evaluation of Web sites in, 342

Internet access in, 227, 341

Internet blocking in, 342–343, 346

Internet filtering in, 230, 342–344

Internet surveillance in, 345

ISPs in, 341–342, 345–346

key indicators on, 340

legal and regulatory frameworks in, 11, 228, 343–345

ONI testing results on, 339, 345–346

Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority of, 343

Prevention of Electronic Crimes Ordinance of, 344

results at a glance for, 339

social media in, 342–343

Pakistan Telecommunication Company, Ltd., 341–342

Parents Enabling Parents Coalition, 125

pBot, 161–163

Peterporn incident, 312, 314

Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, 124–125

Philippines, 15, 115–131

competing Internet-related values in, 115–116, 126–128

corporate Internet use in, 121, 123–124

educational Internet use in, 119–122

freedom of expression in, 124–126

governmental Internet use in, 116–119

Incident Investigation and Review Committee in, 119

Internet filtering in, 230

2010 elections of, 116–117

2010 tourist hijacking in, 118–119

Pornography regulation, 9–10

in Bangladesh, 246

in China, 282

in corporations, 123

in educational institutions, 120–121

in Indonesia, 312–314

in Malaysia, 74–75

in Philippines, 120–121, 123

Productivity, Internet use and, 117

Public sphere, 69–70

Q

Quimbo, Federico, 117

R

Raja Petra Kamarudin, 46

Real-name registration

in China, 283, 284

in South Korea, 199–200

Reformasi, 43–44

Regional Internet Registries, 178

China and, 185

Registration regulations, 11

in Burma, 11, 258

in China, 283, 284

in Malaysia, 46–48, 330–331

in Singapore, 46–47

in South Korea, 199–200, 358–359

Research, Internet for, 121, 124

Research in Motion, 25

in India, 203, 230, 232, 304

in Indonesia, 315

Responsibility, in Malaysian blogosphere, 52, 53

Root servers, 186–187

S

Saffron Revolution, 153–154, 156–158, 252–253, 260

Self-censorship, 67, 91, 92, 279

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, 48–49

Sexist language, 71–72

Shadows in the Cloud, 29

Shanghai Cooperation Organization, 32–33

Singapore

blogger activism in, 50–51

blogger registration in, 46–47

Internet filtering in, 8–9

Sintercom, 46–47

Sisters in Islam, 74

Skype

in China, 12, 14, 285

in India, 304

Social malware, 14

Social media

in Bangladesh, 11–12, 230

in China, 280–281

governmental policy on, 117–119, 230

in Indonesia, 230, 311

in Iran, 30, 31

in Malaysia, 56

in Pakistan, 11, 230, 342–343, 346

in South Korea, 201, 359

in Thailand, 374, 377–378

in Vietnam, 390

Social practices, vs. norms, 51

Sodomy, 43–44

Sophos, 28

South Korea, 199–202, 351–369

background on, 352–353

Comprehensive Measures on Internet Information Protection of, 355

copyright infringement in, 356

corporations in, 199–202, 206

cyber bullying in, 199–200

cyber defamation in, 356

cybercrime laws of, 32

election law in, 357

Facebook in, 359

freedom of expression in, 199–200, 353–354

Google in, 201

harmful communications in, 353–358

ICP harmful-content monitoring in, 355

Information and Communication Ethics Committee of, 354, 355

Internet access in, 199, 226, 353

Internet blocking in, 355–356, 360

Internet filtering in, 230

Internet surveillance in, 358–360

ISPs in, 353, 358–360

K-Internet of, 201–202

key indicators on, 352

Korean Communications Standards Commission of, 354, 355

legal and regulatory frameworks in, 200–201, 229, 353–358

National Security Law of, 352

ONI testing results on, 351, 360

Protection of Communications Secrets Act of, 359–360

registration requirements in, 199–200, 358–359

results at a glance for, 351

Telecommunications Business Act of, 353–354

Star, The, 58

Stuxnet worm, 29

Surveillance. See Internet surveillance

Swarming effect, 169–170

T

Tajikistan, 36

Tan, Nathaniel, 47

Telkomnet, 316

Telkomsel, 316

Text messaging, 23

Thai Netizen Network, 104, 376

Thailand, 5, 15–16, 83–114, 371–383

background on, 372–373

civil society antifiltering actions in, 103–106

Computer-Related Offenses Act of, 87–91, 104, 106, 108, 374–377

Cybercrime Law of, 377

Emergency Decree on Government Administration in State of Emergency of, 91, 93

Government Information Network of, 373–374

human rights campaigns in, 104, 106, 107

ID-enabled cyberspace in, 98–101

intermediary liability in, 89–92

intermediary OSP censorship in, 103–105

Internal Security Act of, 91, 93

Internet access in, 373–374

Internet content blocking in, 88–89, 103–104

Internet filtering in, 84, 86–101, 103–106, 230, 374–375, 378–379

Internet surveillance in, 91, 376–378

ISPs in, 373, 378–379

key indicators on, 372

legal and regulatory frameworks in, 86–97, 228, 229, 374–376

lèse-majesté speech in, 83, 86–87, 93–97, 101–103, 108–109, 375, 376

monarchy of, 86, 101–103, 107

National Human Rights Commission of, 107

National Telecommunications Commission of, 107

ONI testing results on, 371, 378–379

online security approaches in, 103

OSPs in, 103–105

password precautions in, 103

political conflict in, 372–373

postcoup prime ministers of, 85

public advocacy work in, 106

Red Shirt Protests in, 85, 93

results at a glance for, 371

right to privacy in, 376–378

self-censorship in, 92

social media in, 374, 377–378

social norms of, 101–103

Thai Rak Thai Party of, 372

TOTNET in, 93, 378–379

TRUE in, 93, 378–379

2006 coup in, 84–86

URL filtering in, 98

Tibet, 273

TOM-Skype case, 12, 14, 285

Topicality, in Malaysian blogosphere, 53

Trust, in Malaysian blogosphere, 52

Trust Positive, 312

Tsang, Donald, 118

U

Überblogs, 54

United Nations, Internet Governance Forum and, 184–185

United States

cyber espionage and, 189

information imperialism of, 275–276

Internet governance and, 182–184

national security letters in, 31–32

root servers in, 186–187

Urumqi riots, 273–274

V

Values, Internet control–related, 115–116, 126–128

Viet Tan, 135, 147, 232, 390

Vietnam, 385–397

background on, 386

bauxite mining protest in, 133–136

cyber attacks in, 390–391

Decree on Cultural and Information Activities of, 388

distributed denial-of-service attacks in, 133–136, 232, 233, 390–391

economy of, 386

freedom of expression in, 388

government opposition in, 389

Internet access in, 387

Internet blocking in, 392

Internet exchange points in, 387

Internet filtering in, 230, 387–388, 392–393

Internet surveillance in, 390

ISPs in, 387, 391–392

key indicators on, 386

legal and regulatory frameworks of, 388–389

mobile devices in, 227

ONI testing results on, 385, 391–393

online game regulation in, 389

results at a glance for, 385

social media in, 390

Violence

sexual, 71

state, 67, 68

Vodaphone, in Egypt, 25

VPSKeys, 134, 391

W

Wikileaks, 149, 189

World Summit on the Information Society, 183

Wu Mao Dang, 13

X

XL Axiata, 316

Y

YouTube

in Bangladesh, 230

in Indonesia, 230

in Iran, 30, 31

in Italy, 24

in Pakistan, 230, 342, 346

in South Korea, 201

Additional Information

ISBN
9780262298919
Related ISBN
9780262016780
MARC Record
OCLC
771915958
Pages
403-414
Launched on MUSE
2013-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
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