Glossary of Technical Terms
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Glossary of Technical Terms 2G is the second generation of telecommunication technology for mobile networking. 3G is the third generation of telecommunication technology for mobile networking. 4G is the fourth generation of telecommunication technology for mobile networking. 403 (403 Forbidden) is the standard HTTP error code that occurs when a server will not allow a Web browser to access the file being requested. 404 (404 Not Found) is the standard HTTP error code that occurs when a server cannot find the file being requested. ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is a technology that allows data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines. Bandwidth is the amount of data that can flow in a given time. Block page is the page delivered to the user when a request for a Web site is filtered, or blocked. Block pages take many forms and may be disguised as benign error pages or may bear the ISP’s logo and further explanation of the block. CCTV (closed circuit television) is the use of video cameras to transmit video from a specific place to a limited set of monitors. Signals for CCTV are not openly transmitted. Circumvention refers to the general concept of using proxies and other tools to bypass Internet filtering. DDoS attack (distributed denial of service attack) is an attempt to prevent users from accessing a specific computer resource, such as a Web site. DDoS attacks (sometimes called DoS, or denial of service, attacks) usually involve overwhelming the targeted computer with requests so that it is no longer able to communicate with its intended users. Deep packet inspection is a form of computer network packet filtering that examines the data part (and possibly also the header) of a packet as it passes an inspection point, searching for protocol noncompliance, viruses, spam, intrusions, or predefined criteria to decide if the packet can pass or if it needs to be routed to a different destination, or for the purpose of collecting statistical information. 400 Glossary of Technical Terms DNS (domain name system) is a hierarchical naming system for computers, services, or any resource participating in the Internet. DNS tampering (domain name system tampering) is a method of blocking communication by preventing the conversion of domain names into IP addresses, effectively blocking access to the Web site. Domain name is a label identifying a specific computer, service, or resource on the Internet. DSL (digital subscriber line) is a family of technologies that provides digital data transmission over existing telephone wires. EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution), also known as EGPRS or Enhanced GPRS, is a GSM extension that improves data transmission rates by up to three times their original speed. EVDO (evolution-data optimized or evolution-data only) is a telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio. GB (gigabyte) is a unit of digital information storage equal to 109 (1,000,000,000) bytes. However, this term is also often used to mean 1,0243 (1,073,741,824 bytes). GPRS (general packet radio service) is service for mobile devices that divides data into packets for transmission purposes. It can be used with 2G and 3G wireless telephone technology operating on the GSM standard. GPS (Global Positioning System) is a free global navigation satellite system that is used for both military and civilian purposes. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is a digital mobile phone standard used by as much as 80 percent of the global market. Its widespread use enables international roaming among different mobile phone operators. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a set of standards for exchanging text, images, sound, and video by means of the Internet. HTTP proxy filtering blocks communication on the basis of the specific HTTP address or URL being requested. ICP (Internet Cache Protocol) is a set of rules used to coordinate Web caches (places where duplications of online data are temporarily stored, enabling faster access and reducing bandwidth). ICP (Internet content provider) is an online service provider that creates or provides informational, educational, or entertainment content. ICT (information and communication technology) is an umbrella term that includes all technologies intended for the manipulation and communication of information. IP address (Internet Protocol address) is a numerical identification assigned to devices participating in a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol. IRC (Internet relay chat) is a form of real-time Internet messaging. Glossary of Technical Terms 401 ISP (Internet service provider) is a company that provides users with access to...