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Notes Introduction Epigraph. “Jailing journalists,” Chicago Tribune, July 1, 2005, A26. 1. See Pierre Bourdieu, “The Political Field, the Social Science Field, and the Journalistic Field,” in Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field, ed. Rodney Benson and Erik Neveu (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2005), 29–47; Pierre Bourdieu, On Television, trans. P. Parkhurst Ferguson (New York: The New Press, 1998). 2. This last point is well demonstrated in chapter 6 of Herbert Gans, Deciding What’s News: A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek, and Time (New York: Pantheon Books, 1979). 3. David L. Eason, “On Journalistic Authority: The Janet Cooke Scandal,” in Media, Myths, and Narratives: Television and the Press, ed. James W. Carey (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1988), 207. 4. Barbie Zelizer, Covering the Body: The Kennedy Assassination, the Media, and the Shaping of Collective Memory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), 8. 5. The research on sourcing has consistently shown official sources to dominate news discourse: Dan Berkowitz, “TV News Sources and News Channels: A Study in Agenda-Building,” Journalism Quarterly 64 (1987): 508–13; Jane Delano Brown, Carl R. Bybee, Stanley T. Wearden, and Dulcie Murdock Straughan, “Invisible Power: Newspaper News Sources and the Limits of Diversity,” Journalism Quarterly 64 (1987): 45–54; Maria Elizabeth Grabe, Shuhua Zhou, and Brooke Barnett, “Sourcing and Reporting in News Magazine Programs: 60 Minutes Versus Hard Copy,” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 76 (1999): 293–311; Robert A. Hackett, “A Hierarchy of Access: Aspects of Source Bias in Canadian TV News,” Journalism Quarterly 62 (1985): 256–65, 277; Verica Rupar, “How Did You Find That Out? The Transparency of the Newsgathering Process and a Meaning of News: A Case Study,” Journalism i-x_1-206_Carl.indd 163 1/21/11 2:48:41 PM Studies 7 (2006): 127–43; Leon V. Sigal, Reporters and Officials: The Organization and Politics of Newsmaking (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1973); D. Charles Whitney, Marilyn Fritzler, Steven Jones, Sharon Mazzarella, and Lana Rakow, “Geographic and Source Biases in Network Television News 1982–1984,” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 33 (1989): 159–74. 6. Jay G. Blumler and Michael Gurevitch, “Politicians and the Press: An Essay on Role Relationships,” in Handbook of Political Communication, ed. Dan D. Nimmo and Keith Sanders (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1981), 469. Classic studies by Walter Gieber include Walter Gieber and Walter Johnson, “The City Hall ‘Beat’: A Study of Reporter and Source Roles,” Journalism Quarterly 38 (1961): 289–97; Walter Gieber, “News Is What Newspapermen Make It,” in News: A Reader, ed. Howard Tumber, (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1999), 218–23. 7. Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent (New York: Pantheon, 1988). 8. Stuart Hall, Chas Critcher, Tony Jefferson, John N. Clarke, and Brian Roberts, Policing The Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order (London: Macmillan, 1978). 9. Todd Gitlin, The Whole World Is Watching (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980). 10. Steve Chibnall, Law and Order News (London: Tavistock, 1977), 37. 11. Alison Anderson, “Source Strategies and the Communication of Environmental Affairs,” Media, Culture and Society 13 (1991): 459–76; Aeron Davis, Public Relations Democracy (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2002); Oscar H. Gandy, Beyond Agenda Setting: Information Subsidiaries and Public Policy (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1981). 12. Simon Cottle, “Rethinking News Access,” Journalism Studies 1 (2000): 437. Also, Philip Schlesinger, “Rethinking the Sociology of Journalism: Source Strategies and the Limits of Media-Centrism,” in Public Communication: The New Imperatives, ed. Marjorie Ferguson (London: Sage, 1990), 61–83; Philip Schlesinger and Howard Tumber, Reporting Crime: The Media Politics of Criminal Justice (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1994); David Miller, “Official Sources and ‘Primary Definition’: The Case of Northern Ireland,” Media, Culture and Society 15 (1993): 385–406; Zvi Reich, Sourcing the News (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2009). 13. Gans, Deciding What’s News, 81. 14. For an overview of research in this area, see John Eldridge, “News, Truth and Power,” in Getting the Message: News, Truth and Power, ed. John Eldridge (London: Routledge, 1993), 3–33. Key works include W. Lance Bennett, News: The Politics of Illusion (New York: Longman, 1983); Todd Gitlin, The Whole World is Watching (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980); Glasgow University Media Group, Bad News (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976). 15. Sigal, Reporters and Officials, 27–28. 164 . notes to page 4 i-x_1-206_Carl.indd 164 1/21/11 2:48:41 PM 16. Brian McNair, The Sociology of Journalism (London: Arnold, 1998), 6. See also Steven...


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