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131 N ot e s Introduction: Rhetoric and Diaspora 1. Steven Watson, The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African American Culture (New York: Pantheon Books, 1995). 2. Houston Baker, Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 85; Bruce Tyler, From Harlem to Hollywood: The Struggle for Racial and Cultural Democracy, 1920–1943 (New York: Garland, 1992), 13. 3. Originally published in Cullen’s 1925 book Color, the version that appears in The New Negro was substantially edited and truncated, likely by Locke himself. See James Kelly, “Blossoming in Strange New Forms: Male Homosexuality and the Harlem Renaissance,” Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal 80.4 (Winter 1997): 498–517. 4. Countee Cullen, “Heritage,” in The New Negro, ed. Alain Locke (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1925), 250. 5. Melvin Dixon, “The Black Writer’s Use of Memory,” in History and Memory in African American Culture, ed. Robert O’Meally and Genevieve Fabre (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 23–4. 6. David Levering Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue (New York: Penguin, 1997). 7. Steven Mailloux, Reception Histories: Rhetoric, Pragmatism, and American Cultural Politics (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998). 8. Robert Carr, Black Nationalism in the New World (Chapel Hill, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002). 9. For a brief but insightful treatment of how characterizations of Africa have mattered in New World black subjectivity, see Mary Louise Pratt, “Scratches on the Face of the Country, or What Mr. Barrow Saw in the Land of the Bushman,” in Race Writing and Difference, ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1986), 138–62; Marianna Torgovnick, Gone Primitive: Savage Intellects, Modern Lives (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990); Sieglinde Lemke, Primitivist Modernism: Black Culture and the Origins of the Transatlantic Modernism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998). 10. Alfred W. Hunt, Haiti’s Influence on Antebellum America (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988). 132 Notes to Pages 5–6 11. David Walker, David Walker’s Appeal (New York: Hill & Wang, 1995), 93. 12. James Hall, An Address to the Free People of Color of the State of Maryland (Baltimore : John D. Troy, 1859). 13. For further explanation of the symbolic importance of the Haitian Revolution in black and white American discourse see, Sibylle Fischer, Modernity Disavowed: Haiti and the Culture of Slavery in the Age of Revolution (Chapel Hill, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2004).; Elizabeth Rauh Bethel, “Images of Hayti: The Construction of an Afro-American Lieu de Memoire,” Callaloo 15.3 (1992): 827–41; Bruce Dain, “Haiti and Egypt in Early Black Racial Discourse in the United States,” Slavery and Abolition 14.3 (1993): 139–61. Chris Dixon, African America and Haiti: Emigration and Black Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century (Westport , Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000). 14. Cited in Dorothy Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 1760–1837 (Boston: Beacon, 1971). 15. For a discussion of the academic emergence of the term “Diaspora” and its attendant assumptions, see Brent Hayes Edwards, “The Uses of Diaspora,” Social Text 19.1 (2001): 45–73. The term “diaspora” did not commonly describe Africans and African cultures outside the African continent until the 1960s. Since the 1960s “diaspora” has served a number of scholarly enterprises. James Clifford surveys a number of these contemporary theoretical constructions of the term and, roughly, argues that “diaspora” describes a transnational community defined by a feeling of displacement, melancholia, and resistance. He departs from the assumption that a diaspora is defined by its dispersal. Instead, he describes it as having two simultaneous modes, vertical (the language of return) and lateral (a decentered, shared sense of suffering). However, Clifford’s explicit and implicit use of the language of melancholy creates too restrictive a definition of diaspora. This definition excludes communities that bring nuance to the term, like some contemporary Zionist organizations and the black anticolonial rhetoric under study in this project that find in Diaspora a source of political agency and optimism . Indeed, most contemporary scholarly work that develops or employs the concept “diaspora” theorizes cultural dynamics to the neglect of the political mobilization of diasporic community. James Clifford, “Diasporas,” Cultural Anthropology 9.3 (1994): 302–38. 16. Drake’s seminal interpretation of black American political and cultural investment remains one of the most complete narratives of the relationship between black America and Africa. See St. Clair Drake, “Negro Americans and the Africa Interest,” in The American Negro Reference Book, ed. John P. Davis (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966), 662–705. 17. Stephen Howe, Afrocentrism: Mythical Pasts and...


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