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349 Notes introduction 1. North American (Philadelphia), as quoted in National Era (Washington, D.C.), January 18, 1849. On the politics of the North American, see Russell F. Weigley, ed., Philadelphia: A 300-Year History (New York: Norton, 1982), 300, 388, 404. 2. On the role of keywords in history, see Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), and Daniel T. Rodgers, Contested Truths: Keywords in American Politics since Independence (New York: Basic Books, 1987). For a model study, see Eric Foner, The Story of American Freedom: The Reality and the Mythic Ideal (New York: Pan Macmillan, 2000). 3. Charles Beard and Mary Beard, The Rise of American Civilization (New York: Macmillan, 1927). For the most influential expressions of the ‘‘blundering generation ’’ thesis, see James G. Randall, ‘‘The Blundering Generation,’’ Mississippi Historical Review 27 ( June 1940): 3–28, and Avery O. Craven, The Repressible Conflict, 1830–1861 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1939), and The Coming of the Civil War (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1942). 4. W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction: An Essay toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860–1880 (New York: Russell and Russell, 1935); David W. Blight, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (Cambridge: Belknap of Harvard University Press, 2001); James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988); Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970); Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982); Bruce Levine, Half Slave and Half Free: The Roots of the Civil War (New York: Hill and Wang, 1992); John Ashworth, Slavery, Capitalism, and Politics in the Antebellum Republic, vol. 1: Commerce and Compromise, 1820–1850 (Cambridge, 350 Δ Notes to Page 4 U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1995); Brian Holden Reid, The Origins of the American Civil War (London: Longman, 1996); Sean Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy (New York: Norton, 2005). For an excellent overview of the historiography on Civil War origins, see Edward L. Ayers, What Caused the Civil War: Reflections on the South and Southern History (New York: Norton, 2005), esp. 112–25 and 132–42. 5. Kenneth Stampp, And the War Came: The North and the Secession Crisis, 1860– 61 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1950); David M. Potter, The Impending Crisis, 1848–1861 (New York: Harper and Row, 1976); Michael F. Holt, The Political Crisis of the 1850s (New York: Wiley, 1978); William E. Gienapp, The Origins of the Republican Party, 1852–1856 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986); William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion, vol. 1: Secessionists at Bay, 1776–1854 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990) and The Road to Disunion, vol. 2: Secessionists Triumphant, 1854–1861 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007); Joel H. Silbey, Storm over Texas: The Annexation Controversy and the Road to Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005); James L. Huston, ‘‘Interpreting the Causation Sequence: The Meaning of the Events Leading to the Civil War,’’ Reviews in American History 34 (September 2006): 324–31. For two recent studies that emphasize the contingency of events and the role of individual politicians in causing the war, see Michael F. Holt, The Fate of Their Country: Politicians, Slavery Extension, and the Coming of the Civil War (New York: Hill and Wang, 2004), and Nelson D. Lankford, Cry Havoc! The Crooked Road to Civil War, 1861 (New York: Viking, 2007). 6. Ayers, What Caused the Civil War, 133, 138, and In the Presence of Mine Enemies: War in the Heart of America, 1859–1863 (New York: Norton, 2003). 7. On the importance of language in the ‘‘making of political reality’’ in the early republic, see David Waldstreicher, In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism, 1776–1820 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997), esp. 221–30, and Andrew W. Robertson, ‘‘ ‘Look on This Picture . . . And on This!’ Nationalism, Localism, and Partisan Images of Otherness in the United States, 1787–1820,’’ American Historical Review 85 (December 1980): 1119–49. For recent work on antebellum political rhetoric, see Kenneth Cmiel, Democratic Eloquence: The Fight over Popular Speech in NineteenthCentury America (New York: William Morrow, 1990), and Andrew W. Robertson , The Language of Democracy...


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