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Notes Introduction 1. For an account of the neoslavery practiced by southern legal systems and various commercial enterprises, including, ultimately, U.S. Steel, see Blackmon. 2. The classic treatment of Harlem’s growth as an African American community is James Weldon Johnson’s Black Manhattan, 145–59.The pioneering academic study is Gilbert Osofsky’s Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto. See also Jervis Anderson. 3. For an easily accessible source for “You Can Take Your Trunk and Go to Harlem” (and many other popular songs of the era), see the Brown University Library digital collection, “African American Sheet Music,” afam/index.html. 4. Even as late as the 1950s, when large numbers of “nonwhite” people from the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia migrated to the United Kingdom and other European countries to fill labordemands, residential patterns more resembled the urban United States of the nineteenth century. That is to say that while there were communities in which African-descended people clustered, say Moss Side in Manchester, Toxteith in Liverpool, or Brixton in London, many other peoples (e.g., poorer white British, Irish immigrants, and so on) also lived in those communities. It was not until the late twentieth century that something like the large-scale hypersegregation that long characterized urban space in the United States began to really take shape in Europe—as in the tower blocks of public housing in traditionally working-class suburbs surrounding large French cities. Even then, it is worth noting that the people segregated were actually extremely diverse ethnically (and racially, as it would be understood in the United States), united largely by their immigrant status (or immediate ancestry), often from former French colonies, and, to a large extent, some perceived or real connection to Islam, rather than descent from “black” Africa.This, of course, is not to say that some notion of race did not severely limit the ability of racial “outsiders” to become truly native citizens of these metropoles. 5. My use of “queer” in this study refers not so much to an anti-“identity politics” stance or some performative notion of gender and sexual identity as to an institutional , geographical, and/or ideological space in which heterosexuality is to some greater or lesser extent decentered, allowing for the flourishing of relatively open gay and lesbian subcultures in a legally and socially repressive era as far as gay men and lesbians (and African Americans generally) were concerned. Also, while I have found that term “queer” as it is most commonly used in QueerTheoryas a counter to heteronormativity to be valuable, I remain uneasy about the ways in which such a usage obscures the historical specificities of gayand lesbian communities in the United States. Consequently, I also employ the terms “gay” and “lesbian” to engage those specificities as distinct from notions of “queer” space. Thus, while I certainly think Claude McKay’s novel Banjo, which I address in the conclusion, has its “queer” aspects, I believe it is fundamentally a black gay novel. 218 | NOTES TO PAGES 27–36 Chapter 1 1. For example, James wrote in his 1890 classic, The Principles of Psychology, “It must be admitted, therefore, that in certain persons, at least, the total possible consciousness may be split into parts which coexist but mutually ignore each other, and share the objects of knowledge between them. More remarkable still, they are complementary . Give an object to one of the consciousnesses, and by that fact you remove it from the other or others. Barring a certain common fund of information, like the command of language, etc., what the upper self knows the under self is ignorant of, and vice versa” (206). 2. It was also included in the 1895 Majors and Minors. For a sense of Dunbar’s typical repertoire for readings to primarily African American audiences, see the programs in the Paul Laurence Dunbar Papers, Archives and Manuscripts Division, Ohio Historical Society. 3. It is interesting to note that Countee Cullen uses much the same movement of waves of rising emotion and repression of that emotion in his most famous poem, “Heritage”—though in Cullen it is love and sexual desire that threatens to overwhelm the speaker and not resentment and anger. For a discussion of Cullen and Langston Hughes and their relation to Dunbar, see Smethurst, “Lyric Stars.” 4. Hughes’s poem reads: You think It’s a happy beat Listen to it closely: Ain’t you heard something underneath like a— What did...


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