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GW_101-150.indd 115 5/2/12 7:35 AM CHAPTER IO Defeat, then Victory, in the North: Ticonderoga, Bennington, Saratoga (November 1775 to November 1777) Enquiry into the conductofGeneralSchuyler.-Burgoyneappears before Ticonderoga.Evacuation ofthat place.- OfSkeensborough.- Defeat ofColonel UJarner.- Evacuation ofFortAnne. -BurgoyneapproachesFortEdward. -Schuylerretires to Saratoga.To Stillwater. -St. Leger invests Fort Schuyler. -Herkimer defeated.-Colonel Baum detached to Bennington. - Is defeated. - Breckman defeated.-St. Leger abandons the siege of Fort Schuyler.- Gates takes command.-Burgoyne encamps on the heights of Saratoga. -Battle ofStillwater.- Ofthe 7th ofOctober.-Burgoyne retreats to Saratoga .- Capitulates.- The British take Forts Montgomery and Clinton.-Forts Independence and Constitution evacuated.- The British evacuate Ticonderoga. WHILE, WITH inferior numbers, General Washington maintained a stubborn contest in the middle states, events of great variety and importance were passing in the north. After Sir Guy Carleton had placed his army in winter quarters, General Nov. 1775 Burgoyne embarked for Europe, to assist in making arrangements for the ensuing campaign.1 The American army, having been formed for one year only, dissolved itself at the expiration of that time. The defence of this frontier was assigned to the regiments to be raised in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and the north-western parts of New York; but the recruiting service advanced so slowly, that the aid ofthe militia became indispensable; and the plan of the campaign, on the part of r. Sir Guy Carleton (larer Lord Dorchesrer), Major General in rhe Brirish army, Governor of Canada (1775-78), larer Brirish Commander in Chief in America (1782-83); John Burgoyne (1722-92), Brirish Major General, former member of Parliamenr. II5 GW_101-150.indd 116 5/2/12 7:35 AM ~ COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE REVOLUTION ;>&March r777 the British, was involved in so much obscurity, that General Washington thought it advisable to direct eight of the regiments of Massachusetts to rendezvous at Peekskill. The services of General Schuyler had been more solid than brilliant. Prejudices against him had been manifested by Congress, and his head quarters had been fixed at Albany; while General Gates was ordered to take command at Ticonderoga? He had been detained in service only by the deep interest he felt in the contest. So soon as his fears for Ticonderoga were removed, he waited on Congress for the purposes ofadjusting his accounts, obtaining an enquiryinto his conduct, and supporting those necessary measures for defence in the north which were suggested by his knowledge of the country. The committee appointed to enquire into his conduct, were so convinced of the importance of his services, that Congress deemed it essential to the public interest, to prevail on him to remain in the army. The resolution fixing his head quarters at Albany, was repealed, and he was directed to proceed forthwith to the northern department, and take the command of it. Aprilr777 On his arrival, he found the army not only too weak for its object, but destitute ofmilitary supplies. At the same time, a spy, who had been seized near Onion river, gave information that General Burgoyne was at Quebec , on the point ofcommencing his formidable plan ofoperations for the . . ensumg campatgn. After completing his arrangements for defence at Ticonderoga, he hastened to Albany for the purpose ofattending to his supplies, and of expediting the march of reinforcements. While occupied with these duties, he received intelligence from General St. Clair,3 who commanded at Ticonderoga during his absence, that Burgoyne had appeared before that place. In the course of the preceding winter, a plan had been digested in the cabinet of London for penetrating to the Hudson, by the way ofthe Lakes. Burgoyne was to lead a formidable army against Ticonderoga; while a 2. Later historians refer to this as the Gates-Schuyler Controversy, involving Philip John Schuyler (1733-1804) of New York, and Horatio Gates (1728-1806) of England and Virginia, both Major Generals in the C ontinental army. 3ยท Arthur St. Clair (1737-1818) ofScotland, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, Major General in the Continental army. n6 GW_101-150.indd 117 5/2/12 7:35 AM ~ Defoat, then Victory, in the North :>asmaller party under Colonel St. Leger,4 composed chiefly of provincials, aided by a powerful body of Indians, was to march from Oswego by the way of the Mohawk, and to join the grand army on the Hudson. Burgoyne reached Quebec as soon as the river was practicable, and appeared in full force on the river Bouquet, on the western banks of Lake June rn7 Champlain, earlier than...


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