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Abbreviations LAC Land Arbeiter Conferenz Minutes, MA-SP LDS Archives Archives of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah MA-NP Moravian Archives–Northern Province, Bethlehem, Pa. MA-SP Moravian Archives–Southern Province, Winston-Salem, N.C. MR Adelaide Fries, Kenneth G. Hamilton, Douglas L. Rights, and Minnie J. Smith, eds. Records of the Moravians in North Carolina (Raleigh, 1922–69) Shrewsbury Church Records Records of the Shrewsbury, N.J., Seventh Day Baptist Church, Seventh Day Baptist Historical Society, Janesville, Wis. Introduction 1. William Least Heat-Moon, Blue Highways: A Journey into America (Boston, 1982), 252– 62. The 1982 edition omits the hyphen in the author’s name, but later editions as well as newer books by Heat-Moon use the hyphen so I use it here. 2. Whitney R. Cross, The Burned-over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800–1850 (Ithaca, N.Y., 1950), 4, 54. 3. Heat-Moon, Blue Highways, 62; Richard Kluger, Seizing Destiny: How America Grew from Sea to Shining Sea (New York, 2007), xvii–xviii; Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767–1821 (New York, 1977), 54. 4. J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur, Letters from an American Farmer, edited by Albert E. Stone (New York, 1981), available online at . 5. Conclusion is based on a broad reading of American religious history, including Edwin Scott Gaustad and Philip L. Barlow, New Historical Atlas of Religion in America (Oxford , 2001); Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People (New Haven, Conn., 1972); Harry S. Stout and D. G. Hart, eds., New Directions in American Religious History (Oxford, 1997); Winthrop S. Hudson and John Corrigan, Religion in America: An Historical Account of the Development of American Religious Life, 5th ed. (New York, 1992), 132; Notes 256 Notes to Pages 7–9 Crèvecoeur, Letters. Other examples of contemporaries taking such a view include James Fenimore Cooper in The Pioneers (New York, 1884) and John Christopher Hartwick, a Lutheran clergyman and land developer, who believed that the dispersed settlement patterns of the frontier weakened American Christianity; Hartwick’s views are discussed in Alan Taylor, William Cooper’s Town: Power and Persuasion on the Frontier of the Early American Republic (New York, 1995), 40–44. For Puritan views of the wilderness, see William Hubbard , “A General History of New-England from the Discovery to 1680,” Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2nd ser., 5 (1848): 139; Peter N. Carroll, Puritanism and the Wilderness: The Intellectual Significance of the New England Frontier, 1629–1700 (New York, 1969), 65–66; John Canup, Out of the Wilderness: The Emergence of an American Identity in Colonial New England (Middletown, Conn., 1990). 6. The term “push-pull” was first used in 1926 in a study that tied emigration to economic cycles in the United States; see Harry Jerome, Migration and Business Cycles (New York, 1926). For two recent examples of historians employing the term, see Jan deVries, European Urbanization, 1500–1800 (Cambridge, Mass., 1984), 214–15; Marianne S. Wokeck, Trade in Strangers: The Beginnings of Mass Migration to North America (University Park, Pa., 1999), xxv–xxvi. Wokeck notes that the theory remains popular with scholars charting migration trends in modern times. Historians of early America, however, have sought to better explain social and cultural motivations for migration. See Bernard Bailyn, The Peopling of British North America: An Introduction (New York, 1986), 12–15. Scholars of German migrations tend to stress the networking involved. In addition to Wokeck, Trade in Strangers, good treatments of German migrations to America include Aaron Spencer Fogleman, Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717–1775 (Philadelphia, 1996); A. G. Roeber, Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America (Baltimore, 1993). 7. Social historians of early modern Europe have done the most impressive work on how family and social life influenced migration. Some of the best social history studies include David Warren Sabean, Property, Production, and Family in Neckarhausen, 1700–1820 (Cambridge, Eng., 1990); deVries, European Urbanization; Keith Wrightson, English Society, 1580–1680 (London, 1980); Keith Wrightson and David Levine, Poverty and Piety in an English Village: Terling, 1525–1700 (New York, 1979); Peter Clark, English Provincial Society from the Reformation to the Revolution: Religion, Politics, and Society in Kent, 1500–1640 (Sussex, 1977); Peter Clark and Paul Slack, English Towns in Transition, 1500–1700 (London, 1976); Thomas Robisheaux, Rural Society and...


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