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PAGE 89 II. EFFECTS OF THE CLIMATE CRISIS collectively powerful body of climatological knowledge , holistically interwoven with what we might call the environmental knowledge of a culture [in Maori, matauranga putaiao] and strategies for its kaitiakitanga [collective guardianship or management]. The opportunity therefore exists for Indigenous peoples to move beyond waiting—the poignant moment of global realization, acceptance, and acknowledgement— and depart from a framework determined by capitalist economic and political expediency. In general we Indigenous peoples have environmental management practices that are less wasteful and more biodiverse than the paradigm that leads to crop monoculturalism and overfishing. Our attitudes and behaviors always express strong regard for the interreliance of species and resources in both current and future generations. We do not have a particular sense of ownership to land and resources—we are part of those resources, and we identify with the land through whenua [umbilical attachment]. It is not a simple thing to destroy the resources with which we are connected. Maori Ideology and Identity: Pacific Connections Indigenous people have long, historical collections of natural observations, a detailed and expert knowledge of sea, landscape, and atmospheric phenomena. While the migratory pathway of Maori to Aotearoa/New Zealand from a Pacific homeland is less than a thousand years old, our ancestors did not come from a vacuum, the kind of terra nullius suggested by the first British explorers; they had already developed experiential knowledge about the natural world because of their journeys and settlement across the Pacific. Neither can Western science be excused for overwriting (Stephenson 1998) and trivializing the Maori knowledge base of the natural world, an effort that arose as part of a concerted, hegemonic project to foster British settler colonization. We live on the edges of Pacific Plate boundaries and subduction zones—earthquakes and volcanoes are part of our history. We are sea voyagers, navigators, peoples of first exploration and discovery different from those who came later following predetermined routes. The depth of geomorphological knowledge held by Maori is reflected in a passage of oral history published in Ko Ngatoro I Rangi raua ko Tia he rangatira no Te Arawa waka (New Zealand Geographic Board 1990). Two rangatira [chiefs] of the Te Arawa waka [canoe] brought their canoes from Hawaiki down the Kermadec-Tonga Washington Military Department (WA MD) and Washington State Department of Natural Resources (WA DNR). 2007. Tsunami! Evacuation Map for La Push and Vicinity. Olympia, WA: WA MD Emergency Management Division and WA DNR Division of Geology and Earth Resources. Washington State Department of Natural Resources (WA DNR). 2007. Tsunami! Evacuation Map for the Hoh Reservation. Olympia, WA: Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources. Wickliffe, J., and J. Bickham. 1998. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Hematocytes From Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) Exposed to Planar Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 61:239–246. Williams, Mark. 2008. Interview by Chelsie Papiez. Recorded by microcassette, July 30, 2008. Quileute Interviews. La Push. Wray, Jacilee, ed. 2002. Native Peoples of the Olympic Peninsula: Who We Are. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Zeidberg, Louis D., and Bruce H. Robison. 2007. Invasive Range Expansion by the Humboldt Squid, Dosidicus gigas, in the Eastern North Pacific. PNAS 104(31):12948–12950. MAORI PERSPECTIVES ON CLIMATE CHANGE Ata Brett Stephenson Ata Brett Stephenson is of Te Kapotai, Ngapuhi, from Aotearoa/New Zealand. The reality of climate change is slowly dawning on people, but public debate is largely confined to heralding the global shifts, potential changes, and in some instances the somewhat alarming possible impacts on existing human resources and behaviors. Global warning of global warming seems to be a preoccupation of the socially conscious even though climate change is an anathema to the economy of an industrialized world. Most people appear to place little value in the voices or opinions of Indigenous people in this crisis. However, Indigenous peoples hold a regionally specific, PAGE 90 ASSERTING NATIVE RESILIENCE: PACIFIC RIM INDIGENOUS NATIONS FACE THE CLIMATE CRISIS and drift northwards to reach the Gulf of Alaska by June. Breeding adults return south in August, with nonbreeders leaving a little later. Tracking the bird migrations in September 2004 found that homecoming birds from San Luis Bay, California, flew about twenty days to reach Taiaroa Head, Otago. Titi traveled at about 25 km/hr, often following a zigzag course, and some evidence suggested that birds travel further in 24-hour spans when the moon is full (Adams 2005). Of interest to Maori navigators in the...


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