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Case of Indonesia 189 9 STRATEGY FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF AQUACULTURE FISH FARMERS IN INDONESIA Anto Sunaryanto a and Reza Shah Pahlevi b INTRODUCTION Background Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the world, with high diversity in terms of geography and climate, ecosystems, and species. These extensive and varied natural resources have great potential for developing a wide spectrum of fisheries activities. The population of over 220 million is predominantly young, with a relatively large proportion that are of working age. Majority still live in rural areas (both inland and coastal), and most ethnic groups have maintained strong farming traditions conducive for conversion to or development of fisheries, including aquaculture activities. Indonesia can become a major world player in the fisheries sector, based on both natural and human resources. The Indonesian aquaculture sector is still dominated by small-scale business units, mainly in rural areas and often in remote settings. Previous development cycle statistics (2000-2004) show that 63 per cent of poverty a Director for Aquaculture Business Development and Services, Directorate General of Aquaculture, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia. (Corresponding Author. Email: ) b Head of Programming Division, Directorate General of Aquaculture, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia Fisheries&Poverty book.indb 189 10/28/08 3:32:41 PM Anto Sunaryanto and Reza Shah Pahlevi 190 and 42 per cent of declared unemployment occurred in rural areas. The predominantly rural aquaculture sector can play an increasingly important role in achieving three of the national pillars of development: (1) growth (pro-growth); (2) expansion of employment opportunities (pro-job); and (3) poverty reduction (pro-poor). The president of the Republic of Indonesia launched the Revitalisation of Aquaculture Program on June 11, 2005, as part of the Revitalisation of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Program. Under the program for 20062009 , three products have been launched as main fisheries commodities for revitalisation: (1) tuna, (2) prawn/shrimp, and (3) seaweed, with shrimp and seaweed being classified under aquaculture. Eight additional strategic commodities are being given special attention: tilapia, grouper, milkfish, pangasius, catfish, gourame, abalone, and ornamental fish. Seaweed is one of the fastest-growing export commodities; from a cultural point of view, it has proven to be a well-adapted economic activity that can improve livelihoods of many coastal communities. The Aquaculture Revitalisation Programme has increased aquaculture production by as high as 24 per cent in 2006. In 2007, aquaculture production was expected to increase by 38 per cent. Systems of culture that are widely practiced in Indonesia include the following: 1. Pond culture. This is usually done in a traditional manner, in backyards or nearby ponds. With a pond area of around 1, 000 m2 , a stocking density of 5-10 fish/m2 , seed size of 8-12 cm, and 3-4 month culture period, such pond culture averages an 80 per cent survival rate, 1.2 feed conversion ratio, and 2 tonnes/crop production, with a size at harvest of 250-300 g/fish. 2. Cage culture. A more commercial effort, this is a major livelihood resource. In the rivers or canals common in Java, the size of the cage is about 4x2x1 m/unit, while in Sumatra and Kalimantan, the size is larger – around 4x2x2 m/unit. Floating net cage culture has been developed in lakes and reservoirs. Floating cages are built with bamboo or iron bars covered with nets as frames, and drums/containers/styrofoam as floats. They are placed in publicly owned inland waters. 3. Paddy field culture. A nursery for seed/fingerlings is established, which will then be grown-out in cages or floating net cages. Species Fisheries&Poverty book.indb 190 10/28/08 3:32:42 PM Case of Indonesia 191 cultured vary according to the requirements of fish farmers (common carp, tawes (Puntius javanicus), sepat siam (Anabantidae), and even tilapia) and rearing period is 30 days. Paddy field culture is differentiated into three types: a) ‘Penyelang’ (before paddy planting); b) ‘Tumpang Sari’ (at the same time as paddy planting); and c) ‘Palawija’ (between 2 seasons of paddy planting). 4. Mariculture. This basically uses rafts to culture either fish or seaweed. The fish culture (grow-out) rafts are generally constructed as square 8x8 m units, consisting of 4 cages, 3x3x3 m each. The raft and cage frames are made using bamboo, wood, steel, or plastic pipes, and are equipped with floats. The fish species commonly grown are brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) and humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis). 5. Seaweed culture. This uses four...


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