7. The Status, Current Trends and Future Directions for Production and Technology of Fisheries in Southeast Asia
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Directions for technological change 127 7 The Status, Current Trends and Future Directions for Production and Technology of Fisheries in Southeast Asia Rafael D. Guerrero a Abstract There has been a decline in the fisheries production of the inland and coastal fisheries of the region due to overfishing, pollution, and habitat destruction. Aquaculture, on the other hand, has rapidly grown over the last decade with improved breeds, seedstock, and culture techniques for the various species in ponds, pens, cages, and open coastal waters. For future directions in production and technology, the control of overexploitation, reduction of destructive fishing practices, and adoption of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management as well as cost-effective and efficient methods of establishing protected areas and stock enhancement are recommended for capture fisheries. For aquaculture, the integrated culture of fish and rice and other crops/livestock in floodplains, and the integrated farming of seaweeds, high-value invertebrates, and herbivorous fish in coastal waters are recommended as low-cost and appropriate production technologies for the landless poor in the region. The imminent impact of “climate change and sea level rise” on the fisheries of the region is likewise highlighted. a Director,PhilippineCouncilforAquaticandMarineResearchandDevelopment (PCAMRD), Philippines. (Correspondence: ) Fisheries&Poverty book.indb 127 10/28/08 3:32:35 PM Rafael D. Guerrero 128 Introduction Fisheries compose the industry that deals with the capture, culture, processing, and marketing of aquatic plants and animals. They provide food, livelihood, and income to millions of people in Southeast Asia. In 2004, fisheries production of the region reached 19.6 million tons (mt) with 76.6 per cent from capture fisheries and 23.4 per cent from aquaculture (Table 7.1). Global fish production is projected to reach 130 mt in 2020 with an annual rate of increase of 1.5 per cent from 1997. Of the total production, Southeast Asia is expected to contribute 29.6 mt with 71 per cent from capture fisheries and 29 per cent from aquaculture (Delgado et al. 2002). Table 7.1 Fisheries Production (mt) of Southeast Asia (2004) Country Capture Aquaculture Total Brunei Darussalam 2,428 708 3,136 Cambodia 305,817 20,835 326,652 Indonesia 4,811,320 1,045,051 5,856,371 Laos 29,800 64,900 94,700 Malaysia 1,335,764 171,270 1,507,034 Myanmar 1,586,660 400,360 1,987,020 Philippines 2,211,570 512,220 2,723,790 Singapore 2,173 5,406 7,579 Thailand 2,845,088 1,172,866 4,017,954 Vietnam 1,879,488 1,198,617 3,078,105 Total 15,010,108 4,592,233 19,602,341 Source: http://www.fao.org Fish is an important staple food in Southeast Asia supplying up to 56.9 per cent of the animal protein in the diet of its population. The per capita consumption of fish in the region is higher than that of the world. Smallscale fish farmers and fisherfolk are among the “poorest of the poor” in Asia (ADB-RETA 2004). This paper shall review the status and current trends in Fisheries&Poverty book.indb 128 10/28/08 3:32:35 PM Directions for technological change 129 fisheries of Southeast Asia and discuss the future directions for production and technology in the light of markets, biodiversity conservation, and poverty reduction. Status of Fisheries in Southeast Asia The fisheries of Southeast Asia are classified into capture fisheries (inland and coastal fisheries) and aquaculture (farming in aquatic environments). Inland fisheries involve the exploitation of fisheries resources from inland waters such as lakes and rivers by fishers while coastal fisheries refer to the exploitationoffisheriesresourcesfromnearshoremarinewaters.Aquaculture, on the other hand, is the production of plants, fish, and invertebrates with various culture systems in freshwater, brackishwater, or seawater. Inland Fisheries Inland fisheries in Southeast Asia contribute about one-third to the total capture fisheries production of the region. There are 1,300 freshwater fish species from the 5 zoogeographic zones in Southeast Asia. The rivers and freshwater habitats of the region are also dominated by indigenous cyprinids of some 70 endemic genera (Yap 1999). Introduced carp and cichlid species have become established in the inland waters of the region. More than 18 million hectares of inland waters are found in Southeast Asia (Table 7.2). Inland fisheries resources in many countries of the region have declined because of overfishing, pollution, and habitat destruction. In the Philippines, for instance, a 26 per cent reduction in the annual inland fisheries production of the country...