6. Technology Policies for Capture Fisheries and Aquaculture in Southeast Asia
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Profile of Technologies 107 6 Technology Policies for Capture Fisheries and Aquaculture in Southeast Asia Pongpat Boonchuwong a and Patricia Casal b ABSTRACT Fisheries and aquaculture production are significant to Southeast Asian economies, mostly for food security and livelihood source. Its output in the sector steadily increased in the last forty years. However, a thorough examination of existing technologies for the fisheries sector is still needed before policies can be formulated. This paper discusses technology profiles for aquaculture and capture fisheries in the Southeast Asian region, and also provides national action plans for Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. OVERVIEW The capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors are of fundamental importance to Southeast Asia in terms of food security, revenue generation, and employment. Both catching and farming aquatic resources form a vital part of the rural people’s livelihoods in several countries. Culturally, aquatic resources mean more than just a source of income or food supply. Traditional fishery products such as fish sauce and fish-based condiments are significant a Director, Fisheries Economics Division, Department of Fisheries, Thailand. (Corresponding Author. Email: ) b Research Assistant, Research and Development Department, SEARCA, Philippines Fisheries&Poverty book.indb 107 10/28/08 3:32:32 PM Pongpat Boonchuwong and Patricia Casal 108 ingredients of people’s daily diet and are not easily substituted. All sizes and types of fish are utilised with very little wastage. Only recently has it become apparent that fish play an essential role in both the food security and nutritional security of many rural and coastal populations. Fisheries and aquaculture production contribute significantly to national economies across the Southeast Asian region. This region is a major producer of fish, both from aquaculture and capture. In the last four decades, output growth has been very strong (APFIC 2004). Still, strategies for the sector must take careful consideration of the characteristics of the technology both in aquaculture and fisheries. This paper provides a profile of aquaculture and capture technologies in Southeast Asia, as well as a discussion of policy issues and action plans. It draws heavily from a study conducted by the WorldFish Center and partner national research organisations throughout the region (WorldFish Center 2005). PROFILE OF TECHNOLOGIES Aquaculture Aquaculture, originally dedicated to ornamental fish and for subsistence (e.g., naturally stocked water catchments), has been developed for several centuries in Southeast Asia. Its rapid progress in the modern times has resulted in technologies that range from sophisticated fish growing to more traditional practices that are usually integrated with crop farming or animal husbandry (e.g., rice-fish or duck-fish systems). Culture Systems and Species Pond systems lead freshwater aquaculture technologies in terms of production shares in total freshwater production. Areas occupied by freshwater aquaculture take up only 4 per cent of the estimated potential in Indonesia. Among the most important species cultured are carp, tilapia, catfish, gourami, and prawn. Technologies used include pond, paddy field, and cage fish. The most vital freshwater aquaculture technologies include the running water system in ponds, floating net cage aquaculture (which has single and double-type packages), and culture of fish in paddy fields. Most Fisheries&Poverty book.indb 108 10/28/08 3:32:32 PM Profile of Technologies 109 of these technologies are monoculture of either tilapia or common carp. Polyculture is limited to species like tilapia, common carp, gourami, catfish, river eel, etc (Table 6.1). Table 6.1 Major Freshwater Aquaculture Technologies in Southeast Asia System Indonesia Philippines Thailand Vietnam Pond Monoculture of common carp; polyculture of Nile tilapia and other local species Polyculture of carp; monoculture of tilapia, carp, catfish Polyculture of carp, tilapia, and other species; monoculture of walking catfish, snakehead, prawn, and sand goby Polyculture of carp and other species; monoculture of red tilapia Cage or pen Single-cagecommon carp and tilapia ; double-cagecommon carp and tilapia Monoculture of tilapia Monoculture of Pangasius Bocourti, common carp, and snakehead Rice field Polyculture (mostly carp) Monoculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (prawn) Integrated fish culture Integrated farming of fish (mostly polyculture of carp and cattfish) with pig, chicken, or duck VAC system – integrated farming of fish (mostly polyculture of carp) with home garden and pig Tanks Monoculture of tilapia and catfish Source: WorldFish Center 2005 Fisheries&Poverty book.indb 109 10/28/08 3:32:32 PM Pongpat Boonchuwong and Patricia Casal 110 The most popular species for brackishwater aquaculture technology is shrimp culture in ponds (Table 6.2). Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam are chief shrimp-producing countries and use more advanced culture technologies...