restricted access 2. Population and Demographic Structure
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33 Chapter 2 Population and Demographic Structure 2.1. Overview War, social breakdown, and genocide exacted a heavy toll on the people of Cambodia. Before World War II, the population of Cambodia numbered just over 3 million. According to the 1962 census, the total population was 5.7 million. Prud’homme estimated the total population to be 6.9 million people in 1970, and 7.9 million in 1975. The population in 1979 was estimated at 6.3 million. If the two estimates in 1975 and 1979 were correct, more than a million Cambodians perished during the Khmer Rouge period. Table 2.1. Population of Cambodia Source: Migozzi, Mysliwiec, Cambodia Soir, November 5-7, 2004. However, owing to one of the highest birth rates in the world, the population number has rebounded to the level preceding the demographic catastrophe, and has even exceeded it. As after all conflicts, there was a veritable “baby boom” in the early 1980s. The United Year Population Remarks Total Male Female 1920 2,600,000 1962 5,728,771 2,862,939 2,865,832 Population census 1970 6,800,000 1975 7,900,000 1980 6,589,954 3,049,450 3,540,504 General Demographic Sur1993 -94 9,870,000 4,714,000 5,156,000 Socio-Economic Survey 1996 10,702,329 5,119,587 5,582,742 Demographic Survey 1998 11,437,656 5,119,587 5,582,742 Population census 2004 12,824,000 6,197,000 6,627,000 Demographic Survey 2008 13,388,910 6,495,512 6,893,398 Population census Reproduced from Cambodian Economy: Charting the Course of a Brighter Future. A Survey of Progress, Problems and Prospects by Hang Chuon Naron (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2012). This version was obtained electronically direct from the publisher on condition that copyright is not infringed. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Individual articles are available at 34 Nations, charged with organizing the 1993 elections, registered only voters, i.e. only Cambodians aged 18 or over. On this basis, in May 1993, 4,764,430 voters were registered. On the same date, the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) estimated that there were 8,820,766 inhabitants. According to the 1999 census, the total population of Cambodia was 11.4 million people. During the last decade Cambodia’s population grew by 1.95 million to 13.3 million, according to the 2008 population census. 2.2. Population Structure by Age and by Sex A country’s population structure could be represented by a pyramid based on sex and age composition. The pyramid for Cambodia (1962-2008) shows the combined outcome of fertility, mortality, migration, as well as famine, war and genocide in the past. Cambodia’s population pyramid shows the effect of wars during 1970-1975 and the mass murder of the Cambodian population by the Khmer Rouge during 1975-1979, reflecting high mortality, especially for male population, and low fertility rate. As a result, Cambodia has a young population with children (aged 0-14) forming 42.9% of the population. The sex and age structure beyond age 25 reflects the high levels of mortality during the Khmer Rouge regime and the internal strife during the 1970s. The effect of high mortality and large scale Figure 2.1. Population Pyramid, 1962—2008 Source: National Institute of Statistics 17.6 15.2 12.3 9.1 8.0 7.4 6.4 5.5 4.4 3.9 3.2 2.5 1.9 1.3 0.8 0.4 0.3 17.9 15.5 12.9 9.2 7.7 6.9 6.3 5.4 4.4 3.9 3.2 2.5 1.9 1.3 0.7 0.4 0.2 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 ‐ 4 5 ‐ 9 10 ‐ 14 15 ‐ 19 20 ‐ 24 25 ‐ 29 30 ‐ 34 35 ‐ 39 40 ‐ 44 45 ‐ 49 50 ‐ 54 55 ‐ 59 60 ‐ 64 65 ‐ 69 70 ‐ 74 75 ‐ 79 80+ Percentage Population Pyramid 1962 Male Female 6.5 7.9 7.4 5.8 3.1 3.7 3.2 2.8 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 6.3 7.6 7.1 6.0 3.4 4.0 3.6 3.2 2.6 2.1 1.6 1.3 1.0 0.8...


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