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Table of Contents Foreword Preface INTRODUCTION PART I: GEOGRAPHY AND POPULATION 1 Chapter 1: Geography 3 1.1. Topography 3 1.2. Hydrology 5 1.3. Climate 8 1.4. Natural resources 10 1.5. Agro-ecological system and soil classification 15 1.6. Mineral resources 18 1.7. Landholding system 25 Chapter 2: Population and Demographic Structure 33 2.1. Overview 33 2.2. Population structure by age and by sex 34 2.3. Population growth 35 2.4. Socio-economic status of the population 39 2.5. Population policy 41 2.6. Policy on employment and social welfare 43 2.7. Ethnic group in Cambodia 44 PART II: MACROECONOMIC FRAMEWORK 49 Chapter 3: Macro-economic Performance — Historical Trends and Key Features of Structural Adjustment 51 3.1. Phases of economic growth 51 3.2. Savings and investment behaviors 62 3.3. Fiscal sector 69 3.4. Monetary sector 75 3.5. External sector 101 3.6. Macroeconomic developments in 2008 and outlook 105 3.7. Global financial crisis and its impact on Cambodia 106 3.8. Conclusion 114 Chapter 4: Banking 121 4.1. Background 121 4.2. Restructuring of the banking system 124 4.3. Current architecture of Cambodia’s banking system 129 4.4. Cambodian banking system—an analysis of strengths and weaknesses 138 4.5. Micro-finance 148 Chapter 5: Insurance Sector 153 5.1. Insurance market—an overview 153 5.2. Reform of insurance sector 157 Cambodian Economy pg i-xii.indd 5 11/16/11 9:46 AM Chapter 6: Capital Market Development 161 6.1. Phases for capital market development 162 6.2. Key issues of capital market development 164 PART III: THE CHALLENGE OF MODERNIZING AGRICULTURE 169 Chapter 7: Agricultural Economy 171 7.1. Rice production 174 7.2. Systems of agricultural production 177 7.3. Forests and forestry policy 186 7.4. Fisheries 189 7.5. Animal husbandry 194 Chapter 8: Impediments to Improving the Standard of Living of Farmers 197 8.1. Landlessness 197 8.2. Inputs supply 198 8.3. Physical and social infrastructure 201 8.4. Review of rural development policies and experiences 203 Chapter 9: Agriculture Modernization Policy 207 9.1. Choice between family-scale farms and large plantations 209 9.2. Diversification and modernization of agriculture 210 9.3. Promoting agro-industry 212 9.4. Strengthening technical and commercial services 213 9.5. Land security and land administration reform 213 9.6. Water resources management reform 215 9.7. Increase and diversification of rural income 217 9.8. Reducing the vulnerability of agricultural activities 217 9.9. Access to markets under trade regionalization 218 9.10. Forest management reform 219 9.11. Promotion of rubber 221 9.12. Revival of fisheries 221 9.13. Creation of conditions for strong, sustainable growth in the animal husbandry subsector 223 9.14. Institutional capacity building 223 9.15. Promotion of integrated rural development and opening up of rural zones 225 9.16. Development of financing systems in rural communities 226 9.17. Development of the private sector and non-agricultural rural employment 227 9.18. Sustainability of donor-funded projects 227 PART IV: THE CHALLENGE OF INDUSTRIALIZATION 231 Chapter 10: Industrial Sector — An Overview 233 10.1. State-owned enterprises 233 10.2. Structure of industry 235 10.3. Garment and textiles 237 10.4. Construction 241 Cambodian Economy pg i-xii.indd 6 11/16/11 9:46 AM 10.5. Agro-industry: Food and beverage 241 10.6. Other industry and industrial diversification 242 Chapter 11: Private Sector Development 245 11.1. Modern sector 247 11.2. Informal sector 257 11.3. Constraints to investment and productivity 259 Chapter 12: Industrial Policies 263 12.1. Future challenges and opportunities 263 12.2. Diversification of industrial development 264 12.3. Industrial corridor development 269 PART V: SERVICES AND INFRASTRUCTURE 279 Chapter 13: Tourism 281 13.1. Background 281 13.2. Tourist attraction and activities 282 13.3. Cultural tourism 282 13.4. Tourism as the pole of growth 284 13.5. Tourism policy 290 Chapter 14: Telecommunications 293 14.1. Laws and institutional regulatory framework 293 14.2. Key features of market developments 296 14.3. Technological progress and its impact on electronic communication revenue 307 14.4. Strategies and policies for telecommunications development 308 Chapter 15: Transport Infrastructure 313 15.1. Present state of roads in Cambodia 315 15.2. Road infrastructure issues 320 15.3. Road development funding 322 15.4. Railways in Cambodia 327...

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