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Acknowledgments xi Acknowledgments xi My formal introduction to the study of Black politics, history, and culture occurred in the early 1980s at Brown University. Under the guidance of Professors Barry Beckham, Anani Dzidzienyo, Michael S. Harper, Rhett Jones, and Wilson Moses, I majored in Afro-American Studies. These outstanding teachers and scholars convinced me that I should major in more than student activism . I thank them for their investment of time and energy in me. My education in Africana Studies continued under the mentorship of scholars and activists such as Paul Coates, David Covin, Sharon Harley, Charles Henry, Charles E. Jones, Joseph McCormick, Michael Mitchell, K.C. Morrison, June Murray, Dianne Pinderhughes, Don Rojas, Robert C. Smith, Ronald Walters, Linda Williams, the late Rhonda Williams, Francille Wilson, and Ernest Wilson. These friends have not only a commitment to the liberation of our people but to peace and social justice for all people. Their personal and professional support has been appreciated. I believe that my initial interest in Black politics resulted from my youth in Atlantic City, New Jersey. At eight years old I was reading revolutionary Black Panther poetry on telephone poles around the Stanley Holmes Village. My family facilitated my youth membership in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, generally tolerated my growing interest in fundamental social change, and supported my independent study and travel. A large and loving family is truly a gift from God. OLLIE A. JOHNSON III While working on this volume, I had several tumultuous experiences that changed the very core of my perspective on life. I was diagnosed with xii Acknowledgments breast cancer in 1997 and underwent chemotherapy and radiation. Later, I was subjected to the kind of public scrutiny about my private life which caused me to question whether or not I would continue my research, writing, and publishing endeavors. Yet, with the help of God, through sheer perseverance and the belief in the righteousness of my ancestors’ struggles, I vowed to continue the work I enjoy—to expose the struggles and rich legacy of African Americans , women, and others who have suffered from oppression. This work is a symbol of my resistance. I am personally very grateful for the support of my family. The encouragement of my grandparents, parents, siblings, aunts, uncles, and cousins has sustained me. I could not have completed this volume without their support. My personal survival was dependent on the dedication, skill, and compassion of several African American physicians. I extend sincere gratitude to Dr. Robert DeWitty, Dr. Martin Dukes, Dr. John McKnight, and Dr. Pamela RandolphBailey . I am also indebted to my colleagues and friends who read and offered suggestions on my Wall Street Project paper. In that regard I would like to thank publicly Lorenzo Morris, Maurice Carney, Simone Green, Joe Davidson, and Valerie Johnson, whose wisdom and insight helped shape the end product . Thanks also to my assistant, Christina Miller, who provided editorial and logistical support, and to Thandisizwe Chimurenga, who provided editorial support , technical assistance, and much-needed laughter. And, finally, I am very appreciative of the friends who have provided balance and unconditional love. Collins Allan, Robyn and Ed Cook, Vanessa and Hassan Hirsi, Stephanie Jones, Kathleen O’Neil, Harry Martin, and James Simmons—you are my heroes and sheroes. KARIN L. STANFORD Acknowledgments xiii Black Political Organizations in the Post–Civil Rights Era xiv Preface ...

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