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Preface vii vii Contents Preface ix Acknowledgments xi Introduction: The Relevance of Black Political Organizations in the Post–Civil Rights Era 1 Ollie A. Johnson III and Karin L. Stanford One Will the Circle Be Unbroken? The Political Involvement of Black Churches since the 1960s 14 Allison Calhoun-Brown Two The NAACP in the Twenty-first Century 28 Robert C. Smith Three The National Urban League: Reinventing Service for the Twenty-first Century 40 Jennifer A. Wade and Brian N. Williams Four A Layin’ On of Hands: Black Women’s Community Work 54 Erika L. Gordon Five From Protest to Black Conservatism: The Demise of the Congress of Racial Equality 80 Charles E. Jones Six “You’re Not Ready for Farrakhan”: The Nation of Islam and the Struggle for Black Political Leadership, 1984–2000 99 Claude A. Clegg III viii Preface viii Contents Seven The Southern Christian Leadership Conference: Beyond the Civil Rights Movement 132 F. Carl Walton Eight Reverend Jesse Jackson and the Rainbow/PUSH Coalition: Institutionalizing Economic Opportunity 150 Karin L. Stanford Nine “We Refused to Lay Down Our Spears”: The Persistence of Welfare Rights Activism, 1966–1996 170 Todd C. Shaw Ten Black Political Leadership in the Post–Civil Rights Era 193 Akwasi B. Assensoh and Yvette Alex-Assensoh Eleven Where Do We Go from Here? Facing the Challenges of the Post–Civil Rights Era 202 Valerie C. Johnson Notes 217 Contributors 249 Index 253 ...