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301 Notes Foreword . The Bretton Woods institutions, in this respect, are far ahead. The World Bank published two massive histories—one on the occasion of its th anniversary and the other (two volumes and more than , pages) on its th. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has an in-house historian who ensures the capture of its place in history with regular publications. . Louis Emmerij, Richard Jolly, and Thomas G. Weiss, Ahead of the Curve? UN Ideas and Global Challenges (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ), xi. Introduction . U Thant, View from the UN (Newton Abbott: David and Charles, ), –. . As Ernest Bevin put it in : “We have to find an economic basis for collective security if individual nations and peoples are to recognise that they have a stake in maintaining it.” Bevin to Anthony Eden,  December , Ernest Bevin Papers /, Churchill College, Cambridge. . John Pincus, Trade, Aid, and Development: The Rich and Poor Nations (New York: McGraw-Hill, ), –, –; Harry G. Johnson, Economic Policies towards Less Developed Countries (London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., ), –. . The UN’s predecessor, the League of Nations, had followed the unanimity rule in decision making. . Javed Ansari, The Political Economy of International Economic Organization (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, ), . . Also known, from its Spanish acronym, as CEPAL. . See Michael Edwards, Future Positive: International Co-operation in the st Century (London: Earthscan, ), . . Lyn Squire, “Why the World Bank Should Be Involved in Development Research ,” in The World Bank: Structure and Policies, ed. Christopher L. Gilbert and David Vines (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ), –. . Lloyd I. Rudolph and Suzanne H. Rudolph,“Authority and Power in Bureaucratic and Patrimonial Administration: A Revisionist Interpretation of Weber on Bureaucracy,” World Politics , no.  (): . . Weber believed that the specific nature of bureaucracy “develops the more perfectly the more bureaucracy is ‘dehumanised,’ the more completely it succeeds in eliminating from official business love, hatred, and all purely personal, irrational, and emotional elements that escape calculation.” Max Weber in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, ed., trans., and with an introduction by H. H. Girth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, ), . . Rudolph and Rudolph, “Authority and Power in Bureaucratic and Patrimonial Administration,” . . Ansari, The Political Economy of International Economic Organization, –. . In defining the criteria of the “good researcher,” we do not suggest that bad researchers, who fail to meet these criteria, cannot be found in academia as well as elsewhere. Our point is that good researchers face an additional hazard in the bureaucratic context. . In its early years, the World Bank’s most distinguished economist was Paul Rosenstein-Rodan, who contributed one of the seminal works of the new sub-discipline of development economics in : “Problems of Industrialisation in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe,” Economic Journal (June–September ). His sojourn at the bank between  and  was a contentious and unhappy one, and after many conflicts with the management, he left for academic life at MIT. . Jan Tinbergen, The Design of Development (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press for IBRD, ). His account of the publication delay and the reasons for it are given in Jan R. Magnus and Mary S. Morgan, “The ET Interview: Professor J. Tinbergen,” Econometric Theory , no.  (): –. . See John Williamson, “What Washington Means by Policy Reform” in Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? ed. John Williamson (Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, ). . For a detailed case study of such vetting at the World Bank, see Robert Wade, “Japan, the World Bank and the Art of Paradigm Maintenance: The East Asian Miracle in Political Perspective,” New Left Review, no.  (May–June ): –. . It was slow to adopt the techniques of discounted cash flow and shadow-pricing in project appraisal, the bank’s historians, E. S. Mason and R. E. Asher. The World Bank since Bretton Woods (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, ), . . M. Gavin and Dani Rodrik,“The World Bank in Historical Perspective,” American Economic Review , no.  (May ): –. See also Nicolas Stern and Francisco Ferreira, “The World Bank as an ‘Intellectual Actor,’” in The World Bank: Its First Half Century, ed. Devesh Kapur, John P. Lewis, and Richard Webb, vol. , Perspectives (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, ), –. . Henry J. Bruton, “A Reconsideration of Import Substitution,” Journal of Economic Literature XXXVI (June ): . . Alfred E. Eckes Jr., Revisiting U.S. Trade Policy: Decisions in Perspective (Athens: Ohio University Press, ), –. . Mark Bevir, The Logic of the History of Ideas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ), –. . See, for example, Richard J. Evans, In Defence of History (London: Granta Books, ), , for an expression of the narrow view of intellectual history. 302 Notes to pages 8–14 . Putting...


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