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  295 Bibliography Abramson, Rudy. “From the Beginning Berea Nurtured Those Most in Need.” Smithsonian (Nov./Dec. 1993): 92–104. Adams, C. F. “The Proposed Increase of the Tuition Fee.” Harvard Graduates’ Magazine 13 (Sept. 1904): 6–22. “Advocates Loans for Scholarships.” New York Times (Aug. 2, 1926): 11. Aldersley, Stephen F. “‘Upward Drift’ Is Alive and Well.” Change (Sept./Oct. 1995): 51–56. Allmendinger, David F., Jr. Paupers and Scholars: The Transformation of Student Life in Nineteenth-Century New England. New York: St. Martin’s, 1975. ———. “Mount Holyoke Students Encounter the Need for Life-Planning, 1837– 1850.” History of Education Quarterly 19 (Spring 1979): 27–46. Amenta, Edwin. Bold Relief: Institutional Politics and the Origins of Modern American Social Policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998. American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Angelo, Richard. “The Students at the University of Pennsylvania and the Temple College of Philadelphia, 1873–1906: Some Notes on Schooling, Class and Social Mobility in the Late Nineteenth Century.” History of Education Quarterly 19 (1979): 179–205. Archibald, Robert B. Redesigning the Financial Aid System: Why Colleges and Universities Should Switch Roles with the Federal Government. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. Arenson, Karen W. “Leading Colleges Adopt New Guidelines for Awarding Financial Aid.” New York Times (July 6, 2001): A11. ———. ‘To Raise Its Image, CUNY Pays for Top Students.” New York Times (May 11, 2002): A16. Arnett, Trevor. Trends in Tuition Fees in State and Endowed Colleges and Universities 296   Aiding Students, Buying Students in the United States from 1928–29 through 1936–37. New York: General Education Board, 1939. ———. Recent Trends in Higher Education in the United States; with Special Reference to Financial Support for Private Colleges and Universities. New York: General Education Board, 1940. Arnone, Michael. “A Texas-Size Challenge.” Chronicle of Higher Education (Nov. 2003): A13–14. Aronson, Sidney H. Status and Kinship in the Higher Civil Service: Standards of Selection in the Administrations of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Andrew Jackson. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964. Ashworth, John, “Agrarians” and “Aristocrats”: Party Political Ideology in the United States, 1837–1846. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1983. Asinov, Lynn. “Colleges Clamp Down on Financial Aid.” Wall Street Journal (Apr. 11, 2002): D1–2. Astin, Alexander W. “Tying Tuition to the CPI: Why It Doesn’t Add Up.” Chronicle of Higher Education (Feb. 20, 2004): B20. Aston, T. H., and Rosamond Faith. “The Endowments of the University and Colleges to circa 1348.” In History of the University of Oxford, Vol. 1, The Early Oxford Schools, ed. J .I. Catto. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984. Avery, Christopher, and Caroline M. Hoxby. “Do and Should Financial Aid Packages Affect Students’ College Choices?” NBER Working Paper no. 9482. Cambridge : National Bureau of Economic Research, Feb., 2003. Axt, Richard G. The Federal Government and Financing Higher Education. New York: Columbia University Press for the Commission on Financing Higher Education, 1952. Bacon, Theodore S., Jr. “Financial Aid.” Amherst Alumni News, 11 (Apr. 1959): 6– 7. Bailey, William B. “College Life and the Social Order.” Religious Education 9 (1914): 243–50. Barnard, Frederick A. P. “Annual Report of the President” (1879). In The Rise of a University, vol. 1, The Later Days of Old Columbia College, From the Annual Reports of Frederick A .P. Barnard, President of Columbia College, 1864–1889, ed. William F. Russell. New York: Columbia University Press, 1937. Barton, Paul. “Wealth Likely to Continue Separating Blacks, Whites.” Asheville Citizen-Times (Apr. 13, 1998, Gannet News Service): 1. Battle, Kemp D. History of the University of North Carolina. 2 vols. Raleigh: Broughton , 1907, 1912. Baum, Sandra. “Access, Choice and the Middle Class.” Journal of Student Financial Aid 24 (1994): 17–25. ———. “Equity and Enrollment Management: Conflicting Goals?” In National Bibliography  297 Association of College and Business Officers, Proceedings from the NACUBO Forum on Tuition Discounting (Dallas: Feb. 3–4, 2000): 45–48. Baum, Sandra, and Saul Schwartz. “Merit Aid to College Students.” Economics of Education Review 7 (1988): 127–34. Beadie, Nancy. “From Student Markets to Credential Markets: the Creation of the Regents Examination System in New York State, 1864–1890.” History of Education Quarterly 39 (Spring 1999): 1–30. Becker, Gary S. Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education. 3rd edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Beecher, Lyman. On the Importance of Assisting Young Men of Piety and Talents in Obtaining an Education for the Gospel Ministry. Andover: Flagg and Gould, 1815. ———. A Plea for Colleges: an address before the...