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3  1 Spanish in the Sixteenth Century: The Colonial Hispanization of Andean Indigenous Languages and Cultures Lydia Fossa Evangelization was the main justification for the Spanish colonization of the Indies, but it could not be carried out without a common language. I will explore the circumstances of this seemingly focused religious activity from the perspective of its attached language policies and their application, and examine their disproportionate consequences for the survival of the Andean languages and cultures. When first approaching the study of Andean hispanization, we see on the one hand that there were several royal decrees and laws requiring the teaching of Spanish to all inhabitants of the New World to facilitate their conversion; on the other hand, the evangelization in indigenous languages was happening prior to or in place of that teaching. I will analyze those simultaneous and apparently contradictory movements in linguistic colonization that characterize the fifty-year period between 1526 and 1576 in the Andes. The association between evangelization, hispanization, and the teaching of “good manners” will also be acknowledged, as well as the dramatic effects hispanization had on indigenous languages. *MoranaFinalPages.indd 3 12/1/04 7:12:47 PM 4 LYDIA FOSSA Evangelization, the Main Justification for Invasion The Pope had the mission of promoting the dissemination of the New Testament throughout the world (Vitoria 227). If he so wished, he could transfer this responsibility to royalty. The Spanish Kings received it by way of the Patronato.1 Through this Institution they received funding to exercise the missionary activities they entrusted to the religious orders and diocesan clergy in the Indies. One of the first indications of the crucial economic and religious importance of the evangelization of the Indies is found in the Instructions of the King and Queen of Spain to Christopher Columbus, in 1497: Item: se debe procurar que vayan a las dichas Indias algunos religiosos e clérigos, buenas personas, para que allá administren los Santos Sacramentos a los que allá estarán, e procuren de convertir a nuestra santa fe católica a los dichos indios naturales de las dichas Indias . . . (Morales Padrón 79) (Item: it should be stressed that those going to the Indies be religious men, and clerics , good people, so they can administer the Sacraments to the ones that are already there. They should also endeavor to convert to our sacred Catholic faith the said natural Indians of the said Indies . . . (translation mine) In 1509, in an Instruction to Admiral Diego Colón, issued by the Catholic King, Don Fernando V, the first paragraph instructs the Admiral on what to do in Hispaniola regarding “las cosas del servicio de Dios Nuestro Señor” (the things needed for the service of God Our Lord). This Instruction was issued to ensure that churches recently built were being used by the appointed clerics and friars who cared for the spiritual needs of both Christians and newly converted peoples. In the same Instruction, the King expressed his main wish: . . . mi principal deseo siempre ha sido y es en estas cosas de las Indias que los indios se conviertan a nuestra santa fe católica para que sus ánimas no se pierdan, para lo cual es menester que sean informados de las cosas de nuestra santa fe católica ; ternéis muy gran cuidado cómo sin les hacer fuerza alguna, ansí las personas religiosas como aquellas a quien los dieren en nuestro nombre en encomienda, los instruyan e informen en las cosas de nuestra santa fe católica con mucho amor, para que los que se han ya convertido a nuestra santa fe, perseveren en ella y sirvan a Dios como buenos cristianos, y los que no se hobieren convertido hasta agora se conviertan lo más presto que ser pueda . . . (81) *MoranaFinalPages.indd 4 12/1/04 7:12:47 PM SPANISH IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 5 ( . . . my main wish has always been, and is, in these things related to the Indies, that indians be converted to our sacred Catholic faith so that their souls will not be lost. For that purpose it is necessary that they be informed of all things pertaining to our sacred Catholic faith.You, religious persons or those who receive them in encomienda , have to instruct them.You will be very careful in their instruction, teaching them without pressure. As for those who are already converted, inform them of our faith with love, to persevere in it and serve God as good...


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