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Aghlabids/Aghlabid state: Aghlabid State, establishment of, 44; Aghlabid trading network, 44–45; al-Aghlab, Ibrahim bin (emir), 44; ethnic diversity under, 46–47, 305n69; Malta, conquest of, 43, 44, 45–46, 305nn38–39,41; Sicily, conquest of, 45, 305n38. See also North Africa al-Aghlab, Ibraham bin (emir), 44 Alagona, Artale, 65 al-As, Amr bin, 43 Alfonso V (of Aragon), 67, 314n226 Algiers: autonomy of, 146; capture of (by Barbarossa ), 77, 143, 317n18; defense of Tunis against, 147, 102t, 278t; galley/warship fleet of, 105t; Morea, War of, 259t; Order squadron , capture by, 97t; siege of (by Charles V), 95t, 142, 214t, 329n20; unlimited corsair activity of, 146, 229t Amalfi merchants/traders, 42, 55, 57 Amphorae: cargoes, contents of, 26i, 27; found at Xlendi Bay, 189, 191, 191i; isolated sightings of, 298n140; locating find spot of, 26; of Maltese manufacture, 298n147; Phoenician-Punic, 294n77; pottery (Maltese ), 298n147; at Salina Bay, 188i, 188–89; at Xlendi Bay, 189 Angevins: Aragon victory over (in Malta), 60, 311nn166–67; capture of Castrum Maris, 60, 310n157, 311nn166–68; Gozo, maritime defense of, 59; Italy, Angevin-Aragonese power in, 59; trade with Ifriqiya, 59 Anjou, Charles of: control of Malta, 58; rebellion against, 59 Arabs: assessment of Malta by, 48, 306nn75– 76; Berber/Bedouin invasions of Maghrib, 48–49; Byzantines, conflicts/rivalry with, 34–35, 41, 301n197; Constantinople, siege of, 36; Crete, conquests of, 36–37, 42; Hafsid trade with Aragon, 55, 58; in Ifriqiya, 304n33; Malta, conquest of, 44, 45–46, 305nn38–41, 306n62; Malta, rule under, 46–48, 176, 306n69. See also Aghlabids/ Aghlabid state; Moors Aragon: alliance with Venice, 62–63, 312n183; Index bubonic plague in, 67; Catherine of, 78; Chiaramonte Incident, 63–64, 312nn188, 190; financial crisis of, 67; Hafsid trade with, 55, 58; Italian government, control of, 67, 311n160; Maltese intervention by (Frederick IV), 63–64, 312nn188,190; Maltese surrender to (Pedro III), 59–60, 311nn161–63; Maltese taxes (Alfonso V), 67, 314n226; victory over Angevin galleys, 60, 311nn166–67 Archaeology, underwater. See Malta Project (underwater survey) Balance of power (in Mediterranean): central Mediterranean, Ottoman control of (16th century), 143; Ottoman integration into (17th century), 147–48, 331n52 Barbarossa, Frederick (Friedrich I), 309n136 Barbarossa, Khaireddin: Admiral of Ottoman navy, 143; Algiers, capture of, 77, 143, 317n18; biographical sketch, 317n18; commanding Muslim squadron (vs. Sant’Anna), 197; establishes Algerian base, 143; Tunis, capture of, 95t, 212t Barbary: Barbary Coast, Malta proximity to, 82; Barbary States, 143; defined, 335n132. See also Corsairs, Ottoman; North Africa Barriera Station, 162–63, 164 Bastarda (vessel): defined, 321n19; service life of, 321n16. See also Capitana Benevento, battle of, 74–75 Beyliks: absorption of by Ottomans, 316n7 Bey of Tunis: defended by Order (1755–56), 102t, 147, 278t; imprisonment of English consul by, 154, 252t, 334nn112–14 Birgu: contested jurisdiction of, 67; darsena (sheltered port) at, 104; fortifications and defenses (Order), 166, 197, 220t; fortifications (Muslim), 48; hospital at, 162; infirmary at, 162; Knights arrival at, 84; nautical school at, 161–62; Ottoman attack on, 70; plague appears at, 69–70, 315nn244–45; taxes on, 71; trading operations at, 70. See also Birgu Arsenal 366 Index Birgu Arsenal: capitana vessels from, 106t, 115t, 117t, 123t, 124t, 244t; construction of, 106; galley construction at, 104, 106–8, 106t, 107t, 112; ship repairs at, 169; vs. French shipyards, 107. See also Birgu Black Death. See Plague, bubonic Boothouse, Samuel, 154 Bosio, Giacomo (Iacomo): and Grand Carrack , 195, 196, 198, 209t Boudriot, Jean, 205, 207, 343n17 Bougner, Pierre, 202, 205t Bubonic plague. See Plague, bubonic Buonavoglia (rowers), 91–92, 129, 169, 327n134, 340n25 Byzantium: attack on Malta (445), 49–50, 307nn80,83; Byzantine captives on Malta, 50; Crete, recovery of, 51; early presence on Malta, 33, 48, 304n26; Muslim challenge to, 43–44; Ostrogoths, conflict with, 33 Caique, description and function of, 94 Calabria: ancient culture of, 287n18; Arab occupation of, 42; cotton exports from, 55, 56, 109t, 309n130; Luca Galeni (Calabrian renegade), 97t, 223t; naval actions off, 213t, 223t, 228t, 246t, 265–66t; Norman expansion into, 52; Ottoman raids on, 105t; shipwrecks off, 33, 245t; timber, oars from, 105t, 108, 109t, 324nn65,70–71 Candia, Ottoman capture of, 145, 246t Cannon, naval: introduction of, 86–87, 319n71; bronze vs. cast iron, 87, 129, 319nn73,74; on carracks, 86–87, 90; and destruction of Santa Maria, 197; Grand Carrack impervious to, 198; gunports, invention of, 319n72; in Maltese castle, 68, 314n226; perriers (pedreros), 92, 322n40; as prizes, 265–71t, 275t; stone-throwing (pedreros, perriers), 92 Capitana: defined, 91...


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