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adjutant, 93, 124 Adriatic coast, 82 114 African Americans: buried in Italy, 142; as celebrities , 17, 45, 136; as doctors, 36, 78–79; and equality, 21, 90, 129; influences on, 25; and military careers, 152; and race relations, 5–6, 13, 43, 45, 121, 137; as stereotypes, 22; and two wars, 9, 115; as veterans 122, 150. See also black and white officers; black and white soldiers; black officers; black soldiers Aiken, SC, 7, 122 Air Force, U.S., 125 Alabama, 16, 18, 24, 25, 27, 36, 41, 42, 123, 142, 150 Alabama–Georgia border, 18 Alco, LA, 51 Alexandria, LA, 46 Allied bombers, 66 Allied campaigns, 89 Allied forces, 66, 83, 88, 89, 91, 93, 106, 112 Almond, Edward M., 16, 18, 19, 26–28, 29, 37, 38, 41–44, 45, 54, 56, 70–71, 79, 81, 82, 89, 90, 98, 100, 108, 137, 155, 164, 173n3, 174n4, 175n6, 176n13, 176n21, 181n16, 184n26, 184n28, 186n62, 191n38; at canal 90, 92; and ceremonies and speeches, 27–28, 79, 82, 108; grandson of, 197n1 (ch14); Margaret Almond’s ­ letter to, 102; Mark Clark’s letter to, 108; at Massa, 70, 89, 163; and Mount Cauala, 155; as racist , 26, 27, 29, 36, 38, 39–41, 43–44, 45, 91, 92, 98, 108–9, 137–38, 139, 171n22, 175n5, 176n18, 191n54, 192n56, 192n58; and reorganization of division, 97, 100 Almond, Margaret Crook (Edward’s wife), 27, 36, 102 Almond, Ned, 102 ambulance, 14, 67–68 American: attitude, 20; creed, 151; as guards, 47, 112; history, 134; life, 120; made, 92; Negro troops, 73, 106; newspapers, 24, 38, 40, 44– 45, 90, 95; orchestra, 73; as plain, 95; radios, 74; society, 35; soldiers, 13, 73, 47, 78, 93, 98, 105, 169n3; uniforms, 69; unit, 101; wars, 139; way, 17, 137 American Expeditionary Force, 20 Anderson, Eddie, 45 Anniston, AL, 18. See also Fort McClellan, AL antibiotics, 67, 85, 156–57 Apaches, 135 Apennine Mountains, Italy (Apuan Alps), 59, 66, 70, 81, 110, 142, 143, 186n62 Apennines, battle of, 59, 67. See also Apennine Mountains, Italy (Apuan Alps) Apollo Theater, 17 April offensive, 102–4, 154 Apuan Alps. See Apennine Mountains, Italy (Apuan Alps) Arizona, 18, 23, 121, 150, 151 Arizona, University of, 49 Arkansas, 19, 24, 25, 29, 45, 150, 173, 177 Arlington Cemetery, 115 Armed Forces, U.S., 3, 127, 150–52, 153 Armed Forces Color Guard, U.S., 150, 153 Armed Service Manual M5, 21, 171n27 armistice, 51 Armstrong High School, D.C., 23 Armstrong, J. D., 108, 192n56 Armstrong, Louis, 45 Army, U.S., 14, 15, 17, 27, 41, 51, 90, 137, 138, 150; Index Page numbers in italics refer to figures 214 / Index commemorative works, 135; discharge by, 119; and first black general, 36; and forces, 39, 93; Japanese Americans (or “Nisei”) in, 102, 169n1 (ch. 2), 189n34, 192n60; and superiors, 51. See also specific troops Army Air Force, U.S., 114 Army Chorus, U.S., 150 Army Field Forces, 19 Army General Classification Test, 22 Army Ground Forces, U.S., 27, 39 Army Infantry School, 27 Army Military History Institute, 137 Army Reserves, U.S., 124 Army Service Forces, U.S., 39 Army War College, 27, 137, 138 Arno River, Italy, 69, 70, 163, 164 artillery, 189n31; cannoneers, 98; as cannons, 73, 111; as 88-­ millimeter mortar, 80, 82, 97; as 81-­ millimeter mortar, 23, 53, 75; howitzer, 18; Shu-­ mines, 104; as 60-­ millimeter mortar, 21, 73–74; testing on, 22 Athens, OH, 19 Atlanta DailyWorld, 40 Atlantic and Pacific Pavilions, 3 Aulla, Italy, 4 Austria, 8, 153, 198n3 AWOL, 51, 188n24, 192n60, 199n5 Axis Sally, 193n62 Axis powers: tacticians, 89; warship, 66 Baker, Newton D., 20 Baker, Vernon, J., 40, 128, 143, 145, 151, 153–54, 183n8; medal, 143, 153–54, 168, 190n37, 198n3 Ball, Sergeant, 68 Banks, William, S. N., 24 barbed wire, 43, 66, 98 Barga, Italy, 86, 110, 142, 143 Bari, Italy, 113–14 basic training, 23, 35 Batesburg, SC, 122 battalion commanders, 89 “Battle Hymn of the Buffalo Soldiers,” 44 Battle of the Bulge, 79, 188n24, 199n5 bayonet, 41 bazookas, 21, 88 Beasley, Louis J., 36, 38, 125, 187n13 Beaumont, TX, 45 Beckham, Sharon, 152 beer, 54, 60 Belmore, Joe, 93 Bengazi, Faheem, 156, 157 Benson, AZ, 56 Beringer, Albert, 67 bidets, 65 Bisbee, AZ, 26, 31, 43, 56, 59, 135–36 black and white officers, 24, 40, 53 black and white soldiers, 9, 39, 71, 84, 86, 115, 136, 148; and consequences of racism, 127; and discipline , 39; and segregated facilities...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780817386207
Related ISBN
9780817317683
MARC Record
OCLC
809774624
Pages
228
Launched on MUSE
2012-10-01
Language
English
Open Access
No
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