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Notes Chapter 1 1. See James Rada’s unreleased film footage of the visit to the World War II Memorial, shot for Deeds not Words, Oc­ to­ ber 9, 2004. Friedrich St. Florian’s design with its granite and bronze recalls the old memorial traditions. Douglas Brinkley, ed., TheWorldWar II Memorial: A Grateful Nation Remembers. (Wash­ ing­ ton, DC: Smithsonian Books, 2004), xv. The memorial was dedicated in 1995 with the sprinkling of soil from the nation’s fourteen overseas World War II cemeteries maintained by the Ameri­ can Battle Monuments Commission (Brinkley, 3). The film TheWorldWar II Memorial: A Testament to Freedom (directed by Robert Uth [Wash­ ing­ ton, DC: A Production of New Voyage Communications, PBS, 2004], DVD) illuminates the power of the site. Brinkley reminds us, “As you stand at the Rainbow Pool you realize the memorial encompasses the totality of the World War II experience in all the theaters of operation . It honors not just the young GI storming ashore at Normandy or the Admiral deciding how to best win the Battle of Midway, but the Ameri­ can people as a whole. . . . The Memorial salutes the tireless women who worked in textile mills to make parachutes and the world-­ class engineers who designed essential new parts for the B-­24 bomber.”The memorial honors an entire generation (Brinkley, xiv). 2.The 100th Infantry Battalion came from Hawaii’s National Guard and joined the 442nd Regimental Combat Team on June 10, 1944, after the unit had already distinguished itself in Italy. The unit was then identified as the 100th/442nd Regiment Combat Team in recognition of its previous war record. Many people also referred to the unit simply as the 442nd. The Division was the largest African Ameri­ can unit in the army, composed of 15,000 men, and even 20,000 at one time. See Orville C. Shirey, Ameri­ cans: The Story of the 442nd Combat Team (Wash­ ing­ ton, DC: Infantry Press, 1947). 3. Christopher Paul Moore, Fighting for America: Black Soldiers—The Unsung Heroes of World War II (New York: Presidio Press, 2005), xiii. In 1998, of the sixteen million who had served in uniform during the war, fewer than six million were alive; fewer than four million survived when the memorial was dedicated in 2004. See Robert Uth, “Making History on the Mall,” in Douglas Brinkley, ed., WorldWar II Memorial, 270. Chapter 2 1. Stuart Yamane’s moving documentary Journey of Honor (Kaneohe, HI: KHET Hawaii PBS, 2001) chronicles the return of Japanese Ameri­ can veterans to Italy in 2000. 170 / Notes Chapter 3 1. Interview with Eugene Johnston by Carolyn Johnston, June 15, 2003. 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 4. Fred Johnston was an artist who became a founding member of The South­ ern Highland Craft Guild. Interview with Eugene Johnston by Carolyn Johnston, June 21, 2002. 5. Interview with Eugene Johnston by Carolyn Johnston, taped in 1999. 6. Interview with Eugene Johnston by Carolyn Johnston, June 24, 2002. 7. Ibid. 8. Interview with Eugene Johnston by Carolyn Johnston, June 19, 2002. 9. Interview with Eugene Johnston by Carolyn Johnston, June 24, 2002. I have used the terms black and African Ameri­can interchangeably in the book. I have used the terms Negro and colored when quoting contemporary sources that used those terms, or individuals from that period who used those terms as the respectful terms to use. Sometimes the terms were capitalized and sometimes they were not. Offensive racial epithets were also common during the period and in the documents. The more recent terms did not become standard practice until the 1960s and the civil rights movement. 10. Capt. Thomas G. Fergusson, “Reflections: Transcripts of the Debriefing of General Edward M. Almond,” 25 March 1975, Edward M. Almond Papers, Archives. U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, III-­ 39, 170. 11. Interview with Eugene Johnston by Carolyn Johnston, June 19, 2002. 12. Ulysses Lee, The Employment of Negro Troops. United States Army inWorldWar II, Special Studies Center for Military History publication 11-­4 (Wash­ing­ton, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966), 335–336, 500–534. 13. Interview of Spencer Moore II by Reno Domenico, vice principal, Sterling High School, New Jersey, 2001. See also Charles Lancaster, “Black Soldier: ‘I’ll Fight No More’” (unpublished autobiography, 1986, revised in 2010), 2–3, typescript.The 92nd Division was composed of the 365th, 370th, 371st infantry regiments; four field artillery battalions: the 597th, 598th, the 599th, 600th; Headquarters and Headquarters...


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