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Notes

INTRODUCTION: The Cowboy and the Flapper

1. Peter N. Stearns, ed., American Behavioral History: An Introduction (New York: New York University Press, 2005).

2. Paul A. David, History Matters: Essays on Economic Growth, Technology, and Demographic Change, ed. Timothy W. Guinnane and William A. Sundstrom (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004).

ONE: Horse Trading

1. “Tricks of Horse Traders,” New York Times, 1 December 1889, 20.

2. Counselor at Law, “A Horse Bought and a Lawyer Sold,” Saturday Evening Post, 27 July 1861, 4.

3. Quoted in “What Horses Think of Men,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, October 1850, 594; Frederick Taylor, Recollections of a Horse Dealer (London: Ward and Lock, 1861), 8.

4. “The Broadway Rounder, No. V, Gotham on Wheels,” National Police Gazette (New York), 28 June 1884, 6.

5. M. Abendstern, “The Professor’s Story,” Atlantic Monthly, November 1860, 614.

6. Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class (New York: Dover, 1994 [1899]), 87; see also “How to Buy a Horse,” American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine, December 1839, 660; Irving Bacheller, Eben Holden: A Tale of the North Country (Boston: Lothrop Publishing, 1900), 227–35.

7. George E. Waring, “Vix,” Atlantic Monthly, June 1868, 736.

8. Frederick Marryat, Diary in America. 1839, chapter 18; retrieved 21/06/2004 from Athelstane E-Texts, www.athelstane.co.uk/marryat/diaramer/diaramer.htm.

9. William M. Brewer, “A Horse Swapping Convention,” Cosmopolitan, October 1899, 584.

10. “Living in the Country,” Putnam’s Monthly Magazine, October 1855, 392.

11. “Tricks of Horse Traders,” 20.

12. Ben K. Green, Some More Horse Tradin’ (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972), 154–55; Edward Noyes Westcott, David Harum: A Story of American Life (New York: D. Appleton, 1899), 263–66.

13. Franklin Clarkin, “Thirty Cents,” McClure’s Magazine, April 1902, 493–98.

14. “Humorous Papers: Anecdotes of Horse Dealing,” Cincinnati Mirror and Western Gazette of Literature, 13 August 1836, 229.

15. Henry Childs Merwin, “The Horse Market,” Century Illustrated Magazine, March 1895, 691, 700.

16. “Horse-Keeping and Horse-Dealing,” Cornhill Magazine (London) 1861, 619.

17. Cicero, The Letters to His Friends, trans. W. Glynn William (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1952), 28; Francis Henry Lascelles, Horse Warranty: On the Purchase and Sale of Horses with Hints as to Methods of Procedure in Cases of Dispute (London: Reeves & Turner, 1877), 91.

18. William Henry Herbert, The Spider and the Fly or, Tricks, Traps, and Pitfalls of City Life (New York: C. Miller & Co., 1873), 7–9.

19. “A. Lincoln. Attorney and Counselor at Law,” An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera, 1864, Library of Congress; retrieved 8/10/2005 from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/.

20. “A Rare Case,” Saturday Evening Post, 9 June 1866, 6; “The Incendiary,” Lady’s Book, July 1831, 11.

21. “Old Horse Revelations,” Brooklyn Eagle, 19 March 1894, 10; see also George Stephen, The Adventures of a Gentleman in Search of a Horse (Philadelphia: Carey, Lea & Blanchard, 1836), 15.

22. “The Frenchman and the Clerical Horse Dealer,” New York Telescope, 24 February 1827, 155; Fritz Reuter, “Seed Time and Harvest,” Littell’s Living Age, 4 March 1871, 599–616; S. J. Gibson, “Hell of No Use,” Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate, 15 April 1842, 117, 616; Roger L. Welsch, “Straight From the Horse Trader’s Mouth,” Kansas Quarterly 13, no. 2 (1981): 27–34; Ben K. Green, Horse Tradin’ (New York: Knopf, 1967), 254.

23. For example, see “American Humor from Eliza Cook’s Journal,” Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, June 1855, 268.

24. S. H. Hammond and L. W. Mansfield, Country Margins and Rambles of a Journalist (New York: J. C. Derby, 1855), 241.

25. Lulu Gray Noble, “A Story of Our Magazine,” Our Young Folks: An Illustrated Magazine for Boys and Girls, January 1870, 20.

26. “An Alibi,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, September 1856, 516.

27. “Jerry Guttridge: Or an Idler’s Nature Changed,” The Knickerbocker, May 1839, 418–27; Edward P. Pressey, “The Mistress of the Old Grey Schoolhouse,” New England Magazine, February 1900, 704.

28. A. P. Montague, “True Stories of Old Virginia,” New Peterson Magazine, September 1893, 943.

29. J. K., “As a Tree Falleth, So It Lies,” The Friend: A Religious and Literary Journal, 19 May 1900, 349; see also “Editor’s Easy Chair,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, September 1868, 575.

30. Merwin, “The Horse Market,” 204.

31. “His Match at Last,” Puck, 20 September 1911, 3.

32. “Zingaro, A Gang of Gypsies Visit the City,” Brooklyn Eagle, 11 October 1873, 2; “A Gypsy Camp,” New York Times, 14 July 1875, 2.

33. “The Gypsy Race,” Saturday Evening Post, 17 May 1884, 14; Brewer, “Horse Swapping,” 584; Riley M. Fletcher Berry, “The American Gypsy,” Frank Leslie’s Popular Monthly, March 1902, 18–30.

34. John Rhett Rushing, “Horsetrading: An East Texas Study in Establishing Context” (MA thesis, Western Kentucky University, 1991), 33; Margaret E. Derry, Horses in Society: A Story of Animal Breeding and Marketing Culture, 1800–1920 (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 2006); C. C. Buel, “At the Old Bull’s Head,” Scribner’s Monthly, January 1879, 427; Fred Pfening, “William P. Hall,” Missouri Historical Review 62 (1968): 286–313.

35. “A New England Quilting Match,” The Artist: A Monthly Lady’s Book, May 1843, 130; Mabel Percy, “The Tin-Peddler,” Saturday Evening Post, 2 August 1873, 4.

36. “Let Me Tell You About This Mule,” in Foxfire 8, ed. Eliot Wigginton and Margie Bennett (New York: Doubleday, 1984), 505; Welsch, “Straight From the Horse Trader’s Mouth,” 11.

37. Charles P. Sawyer, “How to Buy a Horse,” Country Life in America, May 1906, 720.

38. F. M. Ware, “How to Know the Horse You Buy,” Outing 1906, 505–508; “Where Not to Buy Horses,” New York Times, 13 March 1881, 5; J. Irvine Lupton, Horses: Sound and Unsound, with the Law Relating to Sales and Warranty (New York: William R. Jenkins, 1893), 116–17.

39. Buel, “At the Old Bull’s Head,” 428.

40. “Horse Market Scenes,” Brooklyn Eagle, 12 December 1886, 11.

41. Porte Crayon, “Old Time Militia Masters,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, July 1878, 215; “Hanging of Rev. Enos G. Dudley,” Liberator, 1 January 1849, 87.

42. A. E. Winship, “Are the Massachusetts Country Towns Degenerating?” New England Magazine, August 1900, 658; see also Westcott, David Harum, 294–95.

43. “News Notes from the Wide Field,” American Missionary, March 1891, 106.

44. “Horse Swapping in Georgia,” Brooklyn Eagle, 21 August 1896, 3.

45. “Editor’s Drawer,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, May 1858, 853–54.

46. Edmund Kirke, “A Merchant’s Story,” Continental Monthly, December 1862, 719.

47. J. T. Trowbridge, “Mr. Blazay’s Experience,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, July 1863, 212.

48. Frank DeFriece, “The Abingdon Jockey Lot,” in The Historical Society of Washington County, Va., Publication Series II, vol. 18 (1981), 25–30.

49. “One of the Horses,” New England Farmer, November 1854, 529.

50. Brewer, “Horse Swapping,” 584.

51. Terrence A. Mizell, “Getting Snookered in the Horse Business,” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 44, no. 4 (1978): 197.

52. Morton Sedley, “The Horse Trade,” Brooklyn Eagle, 10 November 1849, 1.

53. “Gossip and Note Book,” Potter’s American Monthly, February 1877, 158.

54. Paul Leicester Ford, “Thomas Jefferson in Undress,” Scribner’s Magazine, October 1892, 513.

55. Rushing, “Horsetrading,” 13, 56 ; Welsch, “Straight From the Horse Trader’s Mouth,” 25–26.

56. Welsch, “Straight From the Horse Trader’s Mouth,” 103–105; Green, Horse Tradin,’ 6–8.

57. Judd F. Sylvester, “Hoss Tradin’,” Saturday Evening Post, 6 January 1934, 12.

58. Green, Horse Tradin’, 10–13.

59. Myra Queen, “Horse Trading,” in Foxfire 4, ed. Eliot Wigginton (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1977), 234–36.

60. Rushing, “Horsetrading,” 40–47.

61. Augustus B. Longstreet, Georgia Scenes, Characters, Incidents, Etc. in the First Half Century of the Republic (Savannah, GA: Beehive Press, 1992 [1835]), 16–17.

62. “Let Me Tell You About This Mule,” 507.

63. Green, Horse Tradin’, 60; Green, Some More Horse Tradin’, 32, 284–85; Welsch, “Straight From the Horse Trader’s Mouth,” 5.

64. “The Horse Dealer,” Literary Journal and Weekly Register of Science and the Arts, 7 December 1833, 216; James Michael Morrissey, Reflections of a Tractor Salesman (Plymouth, IN: Privately printed, c. 1990), 17; Welsch, “Straight From the Horse Trader’s Mouth,” 166–67.

65. Page Holmes, “An Analysis of Horsetrading Narratives” (MA thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), 1972.

66. “Selections from New Publications,” New York Mirror, 18 March 1837, 302; “A Dunkard’s Honor,” Brooklyn Eagle, 22 March 1887, 2.

67. “The Horse Dealer,” 216.

68. Fanny Barrow, “Monsignore Capel,” The Galaxy, November 1870, 683; West-cott, David Harum, 160–16.

69. “As to Christian and Other Novels,” Brooklyn Eagle, 11 March 1901, 4.

70. “Pot-Pourri,” Potter’s American Monthly, July 1882, 107.

71. Longstreet, Georgia Scenes, 28.

72. “He Sold Josiah,” Brooklyn Eagle, 23 June 1888, 5; see also a case discussed in Paula J. Dalley, “The Law of Deceit, 1790–1860: Continuity Amidst Change,” American Journal of Legal History 39 (1995): 425.

73. “Circuit Court,” Brooklyn Eagle, 13 January 1849, 3; “Meadowbrook Club Men Who Do not Speak Now,” Brooklyn Eagle, 22 September 1901, 24; “Horse Trade Adjusted,” Brooklyn Eagle, 24 September 1901, 17.

74. Westcott, David Harum, 9.

75. Deane C. Davis, “Nothing but the Truth,” Blair and Ketchum’s Country Journal, March 1979, 35.

76. Green, “Horse Tradin’,” 13; see also George S. Brooks, “Horse Dealing Is Different,” Saturday Evening Post, 19 November 1932; Welsch, “Straight From the Horse Trader’s Mouth,” 168–76.

77. “Local Miscellany, Mock Auction of Horse Sales,” New York Times, 15 October 1876, 12; “Swindlers Balked,” New York Times, 9 November 1878, 8.

78. “The Buying of Horses,” New York Times, 6 September 1885, 10; Waring, “Vix,” 733; Stephen, Adventures, 37.

79. Lascelles, Horse Warranty, 24.

80. “Old Horse Revelations”; Merwin, “The Horse Market,” 694; Leroy Judson Daniels, Tales of an Old Horse Trader (Manchester, NH: Carcanet Press, 1989), 129.

81. John Houston Merrill, ed., The American and English Encycolpaedia of Law (North-port, NY: Edward Thompson Co., 1889), 761–66.

82. Merwin, “The Horse Market,” 698.

83. Peter Howden, Horse Warranty: A Plain and Comprehensive Guide to the Various Points to Be Noted (London: Robert Hardwicke, 1862), 16.

84. William Burdon, Ten Minutes Advice to Every Gentleman Going to Purchase a Horse Out of a Dealer, Jockey, or Groom’s Stables (Philadelphia: W. Aikman, 1775), 12; Herbert, Spider and the Fly, 38.

85. “Lawrence, On the Age of a Horse,” American Farmer, 16 April 1824, 28; R. A. Sturdevant, “Telling a Horse’s Age by His Teeth,” Country Life, 1 May 1911, 59; Taylor, Recollections of a Horse Dealer, 32–33; Henry William Herbert, Hints to Horse-Keepers: A Complete Manual for Horsemen (New York: Orange Judd & Co., 1859), 101, 115–20.

86. Herbert, Spider and the Fly, 42; Queen, “Horse Trading,” 216.

87. Ibid., 216, 244.

88. Taylor, Recollections of a Horse Dealer, 25; Herbert, Spider and the Fly, 33.

89. Queen, “Horse Trading,” 218, 244.

90. Frank Townene Barton, The Horse: Its Selection and Purchase (London: Hurst and Blackett, 1907), 142.

91. Queen, “Horse Trading,” 229, 233; “How to Buy a Horse,” 651; Taylor, Recollections of a Horse Dealer, 34–35.

92. “Tricks of Horse Jockeys,” National Police Gazette, 16 May 1885, 14; Welsch, “Straight from the Horse Trader’s Mouth,” 4, 125–31; Conrad, Horse Trader, 16–17, 10–72, 46–49, 63–68.

93. “Tricks of Horse Jockeys,” 14.

94. Paul B. Rasor, “The History of Warranties of Quality in the Sale of Goods: Contract or Tort? A Case Study in Full Circles,” Washburn Law Journal 21 (1982): 182–85.

95. Marcus D. Hanover, A Practical Treatise on the Law of Horses, Embracing the Law of Bargain, Sale, and Warranty of Horses and Other Live Stock (Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co., 1875), 150, 167; David S. Garland, ed., The American and English Encyclopedia of Law (Northport, NY: Edward Thompson Co., 1900), 756.

96. Henry Hewit Oliphant, The Law Concerning Horses, Racing, Wagers, and Gaming (Philadelphia: T. & J. W. Johnson, 1847), 86. American experts cited English law as precedent, as in Hanover, A Practical Treatise on the Law of Horses, 102.

97. William Fearnley, Lectures on the Examination of Horses as to Soundness (London: Bailliere, Tindall, and Cox, 1878), 167.

98. “On Horse Dealing,” The Athenaeum, 1 August 1825, 362; Howden, Horse Warranty, 4; Lascelles, Horse Warranty, 10.

99. Hanover, A Practical Treatise on the Law of Horses, 109.

100. Stephen, Adventures, 127–29, 232; see also Garland, American and English Encyclopedia of Law, 751–56.

101. Oliphant, Law Concerning Horses, 45–46.

102. Hanover, A Practical Treatise on the Law of Horses, 143–44.

103. Robert S. Surtees, The Horseman’s Manual: Being a Treatise on the Soundness, the Law of Warranty, and Generally on the Laws Relating to Horses (New York: W. R. H. Tread-way, 1832), 47.

104. Counselor at Law, “Horse Bought,” 4.

TWO: Retailing

1. Robert Jennings, The Horse and His Diseases (Philadelphia, PA: John E. Potter, 1860), 384; Henry Jeremy, The Laws Relating to Horses (London: J. & W. T. Clarke, 1825), 4, 17–19, 94–95; Marcus D. Hanover, A Practical Treatise on the Law of Horses Embracing the Law of Bargain, Sale, and Warranty of Horses and Other Live Stock (Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co., 1875), 153–69; D. Ross Stewart, The Law of Horses (Edinburgh: William Green & Sons, 1892), 44–48.

2. Gerard D. Eftink, “Implied Warranties in Livestock Sales: Case History and Recent Developments,” Agricultural Law Journal 4 (1980): 209–10.

3. Kevin M. Teeven, A History of the Anglo-American Common Law of Contract (New York: Greenwood Press, 1990), 136.

4. Henry Hewit Oliphant, The Law Concerning Horses, Racing, Wagers, and Gaming (Philadelphia: T. & J. W. Johnson, 1847), 86–87; Teeven, History of the Anglo-American Common Law of Contract, 136.

5. “Warranty on the Sale of Horses,” American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine, July 1842.

6. Oliphant, Law Concerning Horses, 80; Francis Henry Lascelles, Horse Warranty: On the Purchase and Sale of Horses with Hints as to Methods of Procedure in Cases of Dispute (London: Reeves & Turner, 1877), 2–3; William Fearnley, Lectures on the Examination of Horses as to Soundness (London: Bailliere, Tindall, and Cox, 1878), 116; Paula J. Dalley, “The Law of Deceit, 1790–1860: Continuity Amidst Change,” American Journal of Legal History 39 (1995): 420.

7. Walton H. Hamilton, “The Ancient Maxim Caveat Emptor,” Yale Law Journal 40, no. 8 (June 1931): 1163.

8. Morton J. Horwitz, “The Historical Foundations of Modern Contract Law,” Harvard Law Review 87, no. 4 (March 1974): 917–19, 945–47.

9. Lawrence M. Friedman, Contract Law in America: A Social and Economic Case Study (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1965), 103.

10. Paul B. Rasor, “The History of Warranties of Quality in the Sale of Goods: Contract or Tort? A Case Study in Full Circles,” Washburn Law Journal 21 (1982): 189–93.

11. Teeven, History of the Anglo-American Common Law of Contract, 140.

12. William Whiting, The Year of David Harum in Homer New York, retrieved at www.Homerny.org/Webpages2/VillageofHomer/Harum; Arthur Turner Vance, The Real David Harum (New York: Baker and Taylor, 1900), 32.

13. John Ward Regan, “The Carriage Trade in Gilded Age America” (Ph.D. diss., State University of New York at Stony Brook, 2000); Joanne Abel Goldman, “From Carriage Shop to Carriage Factory,” in 19th Century American Carriages: The Manufacture, Decoration and Use (Stony Brook, NY: The Museums at Stony Brook, 1987), 9–33.

14. United States Department of Commerce, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, Part 2 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1975), 696; Regan, “The Carriage Trade in Gilded Age America,” 63.

15. United States Department of Commerce, Historical Statistics, 716.

16. George Stephen, The Adventures of a Gentleman in Search of a Horse (Philadelphia: Carey, Lea & Blanchard, 1836), 212; Henry William Herbert, Hints to Horse-Keepers: A Complete Manual for Horsemen (New York: Orange Judd & Co., 1859), 374–76.

17. Goldman, “From Carriage Shop to Carriage Factory,” 16–17, 20, 25; Regan, “The Carriage Trade in Gilded Age America,” 194.

18. Edith Wharton, The Age of Innocence (Mineola, NY: Dover, 1997 [1920]), 54.

19. F. M. Ware, “How to Know the Horse You Buy,” Outing 1906, 507; see, for example, Classified Advertisements, Brooklyn Eagle, 28 April 1888, 5.

20. T. S. Arthur, “What Will People Say?” Ladies’ Magazine of Literature, Fashion and Fine Arts, March 1844, 122–27; ERS, “Hard Times!” Ladies’ Companion, March 1840, 237–40; Boston Pearl, “No! No! No! I Won’t,” Baltimore Monument, 29 October 1836, 30.

21. Robert A. Smith, A Social History of the Bicycle: Its Early Life and Times in America (New York: American Heritage Press, 1972), 6–7.

22. Quilibet, “A Query,” Galaxy, January 1873, 129.

23. Smith, Social History of the Bicycle, 14–18.

24. Ibid., 19.

25. “The Point of View: The Role of the Bicycle,” Scribner’s Magazine, June 1896, 783.

26. Ellen Gruber Garvey, The Adman in the Parlor: Magazines and the Gendering of Consumer Culture, 1880s to 1910s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 106–34; Isaac B. Potter, “The Bicycle Outlook,” The Century, September 1896, 785–91; Smith, Social History of the Bicycle, 21–30.

27. Smith, Social History of the Bicycle, 9–10.

28. “Rush to Buy Bicycles,” New York Times, 15 September 1896, 9.

29. Smith, Social History of the Bicycle, 26–29, 36–38.

30. “American Bicycle Co.” [Advertisement], Outing, A Journal of Recreation, May 1883, xi.

31. “Fastest Bicycle on Earth” [Advertisement], Current Literature, April 1892, xxv.

32. Smith, Social History of the Bicycle, 36–37; “10 Days Free Trial,” McClure’s Magazine, April 1912, 73.

33. Journal of George Fox, chapter 8, “A Visit to Oliver Cromwell,” 1653; retrieved 16/11/2005 from www.strecorsoc.org/gfox/ch08.html. For a similar claim from a horse trader, see John F. Judy, Help Yourself—and I Will Help You (Lafayette, IN: Home Journal Printing Co., 1899), 7.

34. “Original Tales,” New York Mirror, 16 June 1838, 401; J. R. Dolan, The Yankee Peddlers of Early America (New York: Bramhall House, 1964), 229.

35. Joseph T. Rainer, “The ‘Sharper’ Image: Yankee Peddlers, Southern Consumers, and the Market Revolution,” Business and Economic History 26, no. 1 (1997): 38.

36. Dolan, Yankee Peddlers of Early America, 232–33.

37. James D. Norris, “One Price Policy Among Antebellum Country Stores,” Business History Review 36, no. 4 (1962): 455; Richard S. Tedlow, “Nineteenth Century Retailing and the Rise of the Department Store,” in Management Past and Present, ed. Alfred D. Chandler, Thomas K. McCraw, and Richard S. Tedlow (South-Western College Publishing, 1983), 3–6; David Monod, Store Wars: Shopkeepers and the Culture of Mass Marketing 1890–1939 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996), 21.

38. ERS, “Hard Times!” 238; Boris Emmet and John E. Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters: A History of Sears, Roebuck and Company (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950), 17.

39. Robert Hendrickson, The Grand Emporiums: The Illustrated History of America’s Great Department Stores (New York: Hill and Day, 1979), 27; Harry E. Resseguie, “Alexander Turney Stewart and the Development of the Department Store, 1833–1876,” Business History Review 39, no. 3 (1965): 310–11.

40. Walter J. Primeaux Jr., “The Effect of Consumer Knowledge and Bargaining Strength on Final Selling Price: A Case Study,” Journal of Business 43 (1970): 419–26; Glenn Lovell, “Shoppers Are Ready to Haggle,” San Jose Mercury News, 21 January 2005, A1; Kristen Gerencher, “Haggling for Bargains,” San Jose Mercury News, 4 May 2003, F3; Linda Epenshade, “How to Haggle Like the Pros,” Intelligencer Journal (Lancaster, PA), 11 July 2002, B4; Terry Pristin and Marianne Rohrlich, “The Latest in Luxury: Haggling,” New York Times, 16 October 2002, 1; Joseph P. Vaccaro and Derek W. F. Coward, “Selling and Sales Management in Action: Managerial and Legal Implications of Price Haggling: A Sales Manager’s Dilemma,” Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management 13, no. 3 (1993): 79–86.

41. David Jaffee, “Peddlers of Progress and the Transformation of the Rural North, 1760–1860,” Journal of American History 78, no. 2 (September 1991): 529.

42. Hendrickson, Grand Emporiums, 14.

43. Monod, Store Wars, 44–45.

44. Lloyd Wendt and Herman Kogan, Give the Lady What She Wants: The Story of Marshall Field & Company (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1952); William Leach, Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture (New York: Pantheon, 1993); Elaine S. Abelson, When Ladies Go A-Thieving: Middle-Class Shoplifters in the Victorian Department Store (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).

45. Mark A. Swiencicki, “Consuming Brotherhood: Men’s Culture, Style and Recreation as Consumer Culture, 1880–1930,” Journal of Social History 31, no. 4 (Summer 1998): 774–808.

46. Golden Book of the Wanamaker Stores ([Philadelphia: Wanamaker Stores], 1911), 144–45.

47. “Wanamaker’s Work,” Current Opinion, 1 February 1923, 139.

48. Stephen N. Elias, Alexander T. Stewart: The Forgotten Merchant Prince (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992), 18–19; Wendt and Kogan, Give the Lady What She Wants, 18–22.

49. Norris, “One Price Policy,” 455–56.

50. Bill Lancaster, The Department Store: A Social History (London: Leicester University Press, 1995), 16–17.

51. Ralph M. Hower, History of Macy’s of New York 1858–1919 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1946), 26–29, 53–54.

52. Lizabeth Cohen, “Encountering Mass Culture at the Grassroots: The Experience of Chicago Workers in the 1920s,” American Quarterly 41, no. 1 (1989): 23; Ted Ownby, American Dreams in Mississippi: Consumers, Poverty, and Culture 1830–1998 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999), 72–73, 96.

53. For cultural meanings of bargaining, see Nancy R. Buchan, Rachel T. A. Croson, and Eric J. Johnson, “When Do Fair Beliefs Influence Bargaining Behavior? Experimental Bargaining in Japan and the United States,” Journal of Consumer Research 31 (June 2004).

54. Betty Smith, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (New York: Harper Collins, 1943), 389–91.

55. Andrew Heinze, “Jewish Women and the Making of an American Home,” in The Gender and Consumer Culture Reader, ed. Jennifer Scanlon (New York: New York University Press, 2000), 24.

56. Federal Trade Commission, Report on Motor Vehicle Industry, 76 Cong., 1 sess., 5 June 1939.

57. Hendrickson, Grand Emporiums, 27.

58. Wendt and Kogan, Give the Lady What She Wants, 34; Robert W. Twyman, History of Marshall Field & Co., 1852–1906 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1954), 3; Hower, History of Macy’s, 26, 53–54.

59. Wendt and Kogan, Give the Lady What She Wants, 75; Twyman, History of Marshall Field, 128.

60. Golden Book of the Wanamaker Stores, 55–56, 151–57.

61. Susan Strasser, Satisfaction Guaranteed: The Making of the American Mass Market (New York: Pantheon Books, 1989), 29–57.

62. Garvey, Adman in the Parlor.

THREE: Cars

1. “The Horse and the Bicycle,” Scientific American, 20 July 1895, 43; Isaac B. Potter, “The Bicycle Outlook,” The Century, September 1896, 786; Robert A. Smith, A Social History of the Bicycle: Its Early Life and Times in America (New York: American Heritage Press, 1972), 51.

2. James M. Rubenstein, Making and Selling Cars: Innovation and Change in the US Automobile Industry (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), 251–54; Walter A. Friedman, Birth of a Salesman: The Transformation of Selling in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004).

3. Richard S. Tedlow, New and Improved: The Story of Mass Marketing in America (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996), 112–36.

4. James J. Flink, America Adopts the Automobile, 1895–1910 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1970); idem, The Automobile Age (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988).

5. Classified Advertisements, New York Times, 9 April 1899, 19; Stephen L. McIntyre, “The Repair Man Will Gyp You: Mechanics, Managers, and Customers in the Automobile Repair Industry, 1896–1940” (Ph.D. diss., University of Missouri-Columbia, 1995), 41–42.

6. Henry Childs Merwin, “The Horse Market,” Century Illustrated Magazine, March 1895, 693; “How the Trick Is Worked,” Brooklyn Eagle, 27 April 1902, 10; Wilf P. Pond, “Fraud in Horse Dealing,” Outing, April 1905, 102.

7. McIntyre, “Repair Man,” 41–42.

8. H. P. Burchell, “The Value of Last Year’s Automobile,” Outing, April 1904, 124.

9. Day Allen Willey, “Who Can Afford an Automobile?” Good Housekeeping, May 1909, 476; “Are Automobiles Expensive?” New York Times Magazine, 21 February 1909, 12.

10. “Startling Automobile Bargains” [Display Ad], New York Times, 13 December 1908, 34.

11. McIntyre, “Repair Man,” 119–20; see also “A Chip Off the Old Block,” Puck, 2 January 1915, 17.

12. Rubenstein, Making and Selling Cars, 253.

13. “The Untold News” [Display Ad], New York Times, 7 December 1900, 4.

14. “Our New Automobile Salesroom Now Open” [Display Ad], New York Times, 15 April 1905, 4; “The Untold News” [Display Ad]. The last advertisement for a car in a Wanamaker ad was 1905: “What It Costs to Run a Ford Car” [Display Ad], New York Times, 18 April 1905.

15. Boris Emmet and John E. Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters: A History of Sears, Roebuck and Company (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950), 108–109; “Sears Motor Buggy, Model P,” University of Illinois Library Collections; retrieved 22/11/05 from images.library.uiuc.edu:8081/cdm4/.

16. Henry L. Dominguez, The Ford Agency: A Pictorial History (Osceola, WI: Motor-books International, 1981), 14–20; Thomas A. Dicke, Franchising in America: The Development of a Business Method, 1840–1980 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992), 61–68; Rubenstein, Making and Selling, 265–66.

17. John H. Eagal, “The Reminiscences of Mr. John H. Eagal Sr., July 1953,” 37–38, Benson Ford Research Center, record group 65, box 17. (Hereafter abbreviated as Ford Research Center.)

18. Henry Norman, “Can I Afford an Automobile?” World’s Work, June 1903, 3504.

19. See McIntyre, “Repair Man.”

20. For examples, see Senate Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Marketing Practices, 84 Cong., 2 sess., January–March 1956; Martin H. Bury, “Why Is an Automobile Dealer?” N.A.D.A. Magazine, October 1951, 24.

21. Thomas G. Marx, “The Development of the Franchise Distribution System in the U.S. Automobile Industry,” Business History Review 59 (Autumn 1985): 465–66.

22. “Curry Comb or Polish,” in The Ford Dealer Story (Dearborn, MI: Ford Motor Co., 1953), 58; Art Spinella et al., America’s Auto Dealer: The Master Merchandisers (Van Nuys, CA: Freed-Crown, 1978), 19.

23. Dicke, Franchising in America, 63–68; Charles Mason Hewitt Jr., “Automobile Franchise Agreements” (Ph.D. diss., School of Business, Indiana University, 1955), 32–39.

24. Marx, “Development of the Franchise,” 469–71; Hewitt, “Automobile Franchise Agreements,” 69; Rubenstein, Making and Selling, 267–69.

25. “Business Bulletin,” Wall Street Journal, 23 May 1957, 1; “New System for Selling Cars?” Business Week, 24 August 1957, 105.

26. The New Super-Dealers,” Business Week, 2 June 1986, 60–63.

27. “Sues Auto Makers on Resale Contract,” New York Times, 5 March 1916, 4–5; House Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Marketing Legislation, 84 Cong., 1 sess., July 6, 1955–May 2, 1956; Senate Subcommittee, Automobile Marketing Practices, 7; “Are Supermarkets for Autos Next?” Business Week, 2 May 1966, 33.

28. James Surowiecki, “The Financial Page: Dealer’s Choice,” New Yorker, 4 September 2006, 42.

29. Walton Hamilton, Price and Price Policies (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1938), 69.

30. Ralph C. Epstein, The Automobile Industry: Its Economic and Commercial Development (Chicago: A. W. Shaw, 1928), 135–36.

31. Hewitt, “Automobile Franchise Agreements,” 220; Federal Trade Commission, Report, 1069.

32. J. Schiott, “Automobile Industry Needs: 1. New Car Price Maintenance. 2. Stabilized Used Car Values,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, June 1939, 2–4; Theodore H. Smith, The Marketing of Used Automobiles (Columbus, OH: Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University, 1941), 246; William N. Leonard and Marvin Glenn Weber, “Automakers and Dealers: A Study of Criminogenic Market Forces,” in White-Collar Crime: Offenses in Business, Politics, and the Professions (New York: Free Press, 1977), 137.

33. Jesse Rainsford Sprague, “Confessions of a Ford Dealer,” Harper’s, June 1927, 27–29.

34. Lois Cohorst, High Mileage: Behind Every Successful Car Dealer is a Woman With Jumper Cables and a Tow Rope (Hillsboro, KS: Hearth Publishing, 1995), 88.

35. E. R. Taylor, “The Swinging Pendulum,” N.A.D.A. convention news release, 30 January 1960, National Automobile Dealer Association, McClean, Va.

36. Hewitt, “Automobile Franchise Agreements,” 43.

37. A haphazard but representative selection of ads can be found in Q. David Bowers, Early American Car Advertisements (New York: Bonanza Books, 1966); “Automobile Topics of Interest,” New York Times, 29 June 1902, 15.

38. Burchell, “The Value of Last Year’s Automobile,” 123; “Automobile Topics of Interest,” New York Times, 17 May 1903, 14.

39. “Winton” [Classified Ad], New York Times, 23 March 1903, 10.

40. “Times Square Automobile Company” [Display Ad], New York Times, 29 November 1908, s: 3.

41. “The Fallacy of Buying a Discount Automobile” [Display Ad], New York Times, 6 November 1912, 16; Jacob H. Newmark, Automobile Salesmanship (Detroit, MI: Automobile Publishing Co., 1915), 98–99.

42. Dominguez, Ford Agency, 16.

43. Commercial Manager, Detroit, Branch Managers, “Branch Letter #8,” 20 December, 1911; Secretary Ford Motor Company, Columbus, OH, Branch Managers, “Secretary, Ford Motor Company,” 31 October, 1913, both in Benson Ford Research Center: box 1, ACC 509 (hereafter Ford Research Center).

44. No Price Cutting,” Ford Sales Bulletin, 5 April 1913, 2; “I Can’t Do That Bill,” Ford Sales Bulletin, 12 April 1913, 8.

45. “Caveat Emptor,” Ford Sales Bulletin, 31 May 1913, 40.

46. “No Premiums Necessary with Fords,” Ford Sales Bulletin, 24 January 1914, 175.

47. “Price Cutting,” Ford Sales Bulletin, 9 May 1914, 235.

48. “The New Prices—Buyers to Share in the Profits,” Ford Sales Bulletin, 15 August 1914, 289; Manager of Sales Ford Motor Company, Detroit, “From a Report Just Received …,” 10 March, 1915, Ford Research Center, box 2, ACC 509.

49. Joseph C. Ingraham, “Rambler is Offering Savings Bond Bonus,” New York Times, 16 December 1960, 1.

50. William D. Smith, “Auto Stockpiles Reach High Level,” New York Times, 3 July 1966, 59; William K. Stevens, “General Motors to Rebate $200–$500 on Small Cars,” New York Times, 21 January 1975, 69.

51. Detroit’s Rebate War,” Marketing and Media Decisions, October 1979, 62.

52. Jonathan J. Bean, Beyond the Broker State: Federal Policies Toward Small Business, 1936–1961 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996), 68.

53. Ward MacCauley, “The Maintained Price,” Forum, November 1914, 738.

54. Ibid., 740.

55. House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, To Prevent Discrimination in Prices and to Provide for Publicity of Prices to Dealers and to the Public, 63 Cong., 2 sess., 27 February 1914–9 January 1915.

56. House Committee, To Prevent Discrimination, 5–10; Bean, Beyond the Broker State, 69.

57. Schiott, Automobile Industry, 150.

58. Paul H. Nystrom, Automobile Selling: A Manual for Dealers (New York: Motor Magazine 1919), 117.

59. Fordex Editorial Staff, The Model T Specialist (Detroit, MI: Sales Equipment Company, 1926), 175; Paul G. Hoffman and James H. Greene, Marketing Used Cars (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1929), 43.

60. Paul W. Seiler, “Price Courage Rids a Business of Bad Selling Tactics,” Magazine of Business, May 1929, 511.

61. Selling Chevrolets: A Book of Information for Chevrolet Retail Salesmen (Detroit, MI: Chevrolet Motor Co., 1930), 155–56.

62. 100 Car Salesmen: Final Recapitulation (Chicago Branch, 1935), 8, Ford Research Center, 449.

63. Helpful Hints for the Sales Manager: “Chiseling,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, November 1937, 14.

64. “The Ten Little Chiselers,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, August 1937, 10.

65. Bean, Beyond the Broker State, 72.

66. House Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Labeling, 85 Cong., 2 sess., 28 May 1958.

67. Bean, Beyond the Broker State, 32–35, 73–75.

68. Independent Business Protected Under Robinson-Patman Law,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, February 1937, 5; “What is Meant by Fair Trade Legislation,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, February 1937, 3.

69. Philip M. Klutznick, “Nebraska Dealer Licensing Law Survives Three Years Operation,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, December 1940, 6.

70. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 138; “Ten Objectives Sought for Dealers,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, 10 June 1935, 3; F. W. A. Vesper, “Dealers’ Objectives in Relationship with the Automobile Manufacturers,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, 10 June 1935, 5–15.

71. “Wisconsin Pioneers!” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, July 1936, 4; see also “Pennsylvania License Bill Aims at Control of Used Car Allowance,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, May 1937; “Oregon Enacts Anti-Price Discrimination Law,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, April 1937, 10.

72. “Richberg Appointed Special N.A.D.A. Counsel,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, May 1940, 6; “Auto Dealers Bar Bill for FTC Rule,” New York Times, 2 April 1940, 46.

73. Bean, Beyond the Broker State, 67–87; Stephen Labaton, “Supreme Court Lifts Ban on Minimum Retail Pricing,” New York Times, 29 June 2007, 1.

74. Senate Subcommittee, Automobile Marketing Practices, 738.

75. Ibid., 38, 84.

76. Bowers, Early American Car Advertisements, 126.

77. Peter Roberts, Any Color So Long as It’s Black: The First Fifty Years of Automobile Advertising (New York: William Morrow, 1976), 26.

78. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 111; “Suggested Trade Practice Rules for the Automotive Industry,” Automotive Industries, 30 April 1938, 591; “F. O. B. Advertising,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, May 1936, 4.

79. Based on a sampling of Time magazine and the San Jose (CA) Mercury newspaper, 1924 to 1959.

80. Martin H. Bury, The Automobile Dealer (Philadelphia: Philpenn Publishing, 1958), 24–26; House Subcommittee, Automobile Marketing, 40; Charles A. Snyder, “Playing by the Rules,” Automotive Executive, May 1992, 70.

81. Senate Automobile Marketing Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Price Labeling, 85 Cong., 2 sess., 21–24 April 1958.

82. “Hot Cars,” Forbes, 21 May 1984, 12; Jerry Knight and Benjamin Weiser, “Fuel-Efficient Cars Demanding Premium Prices,” Washington Post, 10 July 1979, D6; Jerry Flint, “How to Bargain for a New Car,” Readers Digest, May 1986, 149–51.

83. William Jeanes, “Eye on the Road: Sticker Shock vs. Sucker Shock,” Car and Driver, October 1988, 9.

84. “Business Bulletin,” Wall Street Journal, 23 May 1957, 1.

85. Liz Pinto, “One Price Only,” Automotive News, 14 January 1991, 3.

86. William C. Miller, “No Salesman System Works—Maybe,” Automotive News, 23 August 1976, 16; Richard Klein, “The House Deals—and Everyone’s Happy,” Ford Dealer Magazine, January–February 1968, 12–16.

87. Richard A. Wright, “Case Study: How to Make Money, Lose Friends,” Automotive News, 5 September 1983, 1, 8.

88. For an attempt at a theoretical explanation for this see, Preyas S. Desai and Devavrat Purohit, “Let Me Talk to My Manager: Haggling in a Competitive Environment,” Marketing Science 23, no. 2 (2004).

89. Mark Rechtin, “Saturn Rises, Ranks No. 1 in Pleasing New-Car Buyers,” Automotive News, 19 June 1995, 8; Jean Halliday, “The Way to a Man’s Heart Is Through His Saturn?” Automotive News, 1 September 1997, 1.

90. “Funding Customer Satisfaction Efforts,” Automotive Executive, September 1994, 30.

91. Julie Cantwell, “Saturn Regains No. 1 Rank in Power Satisfaction Study,” Automotive News, 14 August 2000, 48.

92. Chandler Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 2004, part 8: Parting Shots, Edmunds.Com. Retrieved 12/9/2004 from www.edmunds.com/advice/buying/articles/42962/.

93. Thom Rae, “Price-Point Brings in Buyers,” Dealer World [Ford] May 1991, 30–31; Dom Del Prete, “The ‘Wheeler’ Dealer,” Dealer World [Ford], September 1989, 15–17; Neal Templin, “Ford Expands One Price Plan for Its Escorts,” Wall Street Journal, 12 March 1992, 1; Douglas Lavin, “U.S. Launches Antitrust Probe of Auto Dealers,” Wall Street Journal, 11 October 1994, 3; Neal Templin and Joseph B. White, “Autos: Ford Motor Ventures Into Value Pricing,” Wall Street Journal, 18 September 1991, 1.

94. Michelle Krebs, “Moving Out the Cars with a ‘No-Dicker Sticker,’” New York Times, 11 October 1992, 12; see also David Woodruff, “What’s This—Car Dealers with Souls?” Business Week, 6 April 1992.

95. Steven D. Kaye, “The No-Dicker Sticker,” U.S. News and World Report, 27 April 1992, 74–76; Marti Benedetti, “One Price, Many Rewards,” Dealer World [Ford], May 1993, 35–36; Lisa Doll, “No Hassles in Los Gatos,” Dealer World [Ford], March 1994, 11–12.

96. Dick Strauss, “One-Price: Revolution or Evolution?” Automotive Executive, October 1992, 8.

97. Mary Anne Shreve, “Revolving Floor,” Automotive Executive, September 1996, 27; Marc H. Stertz, “Random Access,” Automotive Executive, October 1994, 3.

98. Thomas Moore, “Car Marketers Try the Soft Sell Approach,” Fortune, 12 May 1986, 71; Kevin Reid, “Full Disclosure,” Dealer World [Ford], May 1996, 31–33.

99. Arlena Sawyers, “One Pricers Stress ‘Cultural’ Changes,” Automotive News, 26 September 1994, 1.

100. Robert Simison, “Automobiles,” Wall Street Journal, 18 February 1994, 1.

101. Jake Kelderman, “Is Value-Pricing Valid?” Automotive Executive, September 1993, 23; Bill Dodge, “Learning from History,” Automotive Executive, September 1994, 11. A useful typology of dealerships can be found in Helene M. Lawson, Ladies on the Lot: Women, Car Sales, and the Pursuit of the American Dream (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), 24–30.

102. Skip Kaltenheuser, “At Car Dealers, a No Haggle Policy Sets Off a Battle,” New York Times, 29 August 1999, 4; Keith Bradsher, “Sticker Shock: Car Buyers Miss Haggling Ritual,” New York Times, 13 June 1996, 1, 23; Kurt Allen Weiss, Have I Got a Deal for You! How to Buy or Lease Any Car Without Getting Run Over (Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press, 1997), 23; Gabriella Stern and Rebecca Blumenstein, “GM Expected to Expand No Haggle Prices,” Wall Street Journal, 24 April 1996, 3.

103. Bradsher, “Sticker Shock,” 23; Jenny King, “One Price Sellers Find a Niche in Some Markets,” Automotive News, 27 January 1997, 42.

104. Keith Bradsher, “Don’t Trust Car Dealers? Here’s a New Deal,” New York Times, 24 January 1999, 1.

105. Joseph B. White and Fara Warner, “Car Makers May Try to Alter Pricing Practices,” Wall Street Journal, 24 January 2000, 4; Karen Lundegaard, “Putting on the Brakes,” Wall Street Journal, 23 October 2000, 6.

FOUR: Used Cars

1. George A. Akerlof, Banquet Speech. 10 December 2001, Nobel Foundation, retrieved 16/8/2005 from http://nobelprize.org/economics/laureates/2001/akerlof-speech.html; Roger L. Welsch, “Straight From the Horse Trader’s Mouth,” Kansas Quarterly 13, no. 2 (1981): 6–7.

2. Gallaway, “The Farmers’ Failing” [Cartoon], Puck, 7 December 1910, 16.

3. Henry L. Dominguez, The Ford Agency: A Pictorial History (Osceola, WI: Motor-books International, 1981), 86.

4. William R. Ferris Jr., “Ray Lum: Muletrader,” North Carolina Folklore Journal 21 (1973): 118; Gail Barnes and Pam Nix, “I Swapped That Dog Even for That Ole T-Model,” in Foxfire 5, ed. Eliot Wigginton, vol. 5 (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/ Doubleday, 1979), 42–43; Edwin Muller, “Roving the South with the Irish Horse Traders,” Reader’s Digest, July 1941, 61; Clyde W. Johnson, “To Trade Autos—What Have You?” Nation’s Business, March 1937, 70–72; “Half Century of Change Surveyed,” Automotive News, 4 December 1978, 33.

5. Carl E. Feather, “Go See Willard: Selling Farm Machinery in Preston County,” Goldenseal, Spring 1995, 35: James Michael Morrissey, Reflections of a Tractor Salesman (Plymouth, IN: Author, ca. 1990), 98.

6. Theodore H. Smith, The Marketing of Used Automobiles (Columbus, OH: Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University, 1941), 160.

7. “Announcing a Sale of Used Automobiles” [Display Ad], New York Times, 10 December 1916, 5.

8. Paul G. Hoffman and James H. Greene, Marketing Used Cars (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1929), 76–78, 129.

9. Suzanne Seixas, “Warranted Deals on Used Wheels,” Money, May 1980, 126; Alexander R. Hammer, “Rent-a-Cars Also Sell,” New York Times, 28 February 1971, 12; “Hertz Announces” [Display Ad], New York Times, 2 April 1972, 26.

10. Lora Hines, “Short Circuiting the Dealer,” Automotive Executive, December 1993, 20–21.

11. Douglas Lavin, “Cars Are Sold Like Stereos by Circuit City,” Wall Street Journal, 8 June 1994, 1; Neal Templin, “Superstores Aim to Dominate Used Car Sales,” Wall Street Journal, 17 June 1996, 1.

12. Steven D. Kaye, “Goodbye to Haggling: It Also Means Goodbye to Steals,” U.S. News & World Report, 20 October 1997, 57; James M. Rubenstein, Making and Selling Cars: Innovation and Change in the U.S. Automobile Industry (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), 278–83.

13. Jesse Birnbaum, “No Need to Kick the Tires,” Time, 19 February 1996, 50.

14. Bradford Wernle, “Republic Gobbles up Rival Driver’s Mart,” Automotive News, 27 April 1998, 1.

15. Daniel McGinn, “A Cream Puff or a Lemon?” Newsweek, 10 March 1997, 48.

16. Mary Anne Shreve, “Super Influence,” Automotive Executive, March 1997.

17. Matt Nauman, “Opening the Big Box Again,” San Jose Mercury News, 7 June 2002, i: 1–2.

18. “The Automobile: A Few Suggestions That Will Bear Closer Investigation, the Long and Short of It” [trade catalog], New York, Smith & Mabley, 1905; “The Simple Way,” [trade catalog] New York, C. A. Duerr & Company, 1903.

19. Samuel H. Williamson, What Is the Relative Value? Economic History Services, retrieved 29/12/2005 from www.eh.net/hmit/compare; Henry Norman, “Can I Afford an Automobile?” World’s Work, June 1903, 3503.

20. Ibid.

21. “For Sale-Automobiles” [Classified Ads], Brooklyn Eagle, 15 December 1901, 32.

22. “Automobiles” [Classified Ad], New York Times, 13 November 1903, 10.

23. “Automobile Notes,” Scientific American, 1 March 1902, 135.

24. “Automobiles” [Display Ad], New York Times, 30 August 1903; emphasis added.

25. “Little Used Stearns Cars” [Display Ad] New York Times, 2 November 1908, 5; “Times Square Automobile Company” [Display Ad], New York Times, 29 November 1908, 3; “Little Used Cars at Low Prices,” New York Times, 25 October 1908, 2.

26. H. P. Burchell, “The Value of Last Year’s Automobile,” Outing, April 1904, 123.

27. “Several 1906 Rainier Cars” [Display Ad], New York Times, 18 January 1907, 18; “Thomas Used Car Department” [Display Ad], New York Times, 30 January 1909, 7. For trade-in, see “Automobile Notes”; Smith, Marketing of Used Automobiles, 2–3, 5.

28. John Reed Scott, “Mrs. Randolph’s Nerve,” Lippincott’s Magazine, December 1910, 708–18; “The Automobile Exchange,” New York Times, 29 August 1909, 5; E. S. Partridge, “Selling Used Cars,” New York Times, 24 July 1910, 8.

29. “Every Used Car a Bargain” [Display Ad], New York Times, 24 May 1914, 14.

30. C. L. Edholm, “Selling the Second-Hand Car,” Lippincott’s Magazine, August 1914, 211.

31. Pamela Walker Laird, “The Car Without a Single Weakness: Early Automobile Advertising,” Technology and Culture 37, no. 4 (1996): 800; Jacob H. Newmark, Automobile Salesmanship (Detroit, MI: Automobile Publishing Co., 1915), 90–91.

32. “A Business Proposition for Car Owners” [Display Ad], New York Times, 22 November 1917, 9.

33. Charles Coolidge Parlin and Fred Bremier, The Passenger Car Industry: Report of a Survey (Philadelphia: Curtis Publishing Company, 1932), 76.

34. “Second-Hand Sirens,” Business Review, April 1959, 3; Charles Mason Hewitt Jr., “Automobile Franchise Agreements” (Ph.D. diss., School of Business, Indiana University, 1955), 39–40, 99–105.

35. “Second Hand Cars Worry Dealers,” New York Times, 1 December 1912, 16.

36. “Solve Problem of Second Hand Cars,” New York Times, 2 April 1911, 8.

37. Richard S. Tedlow, New and Improved: The Story of Mass Marketing in America (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996), 154–58; Smith, Marketing of Used Automobiles, 7; J. Schiott, “Automobile Industry Needs: 1. New Car Price Maintenance. 2. Stabilized Used Car Values,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, June 1939, 150.

38. F. Hopkinson Smith, “In Which Our Landlord Becomes Both Entertaining and Instructive,” in The Arm Chair at the Inn (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1912); “Price Cutting Root of Most Automotive Retailing Problems,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, July 1938, 1.

39. John H. Eagal, “The Reminiscences of Mr. John H. Eagal, Sr., July 1953,” Ford Research Center, record group 65, box 17; Detroit, to Louisville Ford Motor Company, 27 September 1912, Ford Research Center: box 1, ACC 509.

40. How to Run a Retail Automobile Business at a Profit (Chicago: A. W. Shaw Company, 1917), 33.

41. Federal Trade Commission, Report on Motor Vehicle Industry, Rep. No. 76–House Document No. 468 (1939), 234; see also Parlin and Bremier, Passenger Car Industry, 76.

42. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 240.

43. Don C. Prentiss, Ford Products and Their Sale (Detroit, MI: Franklin Press, 1923), 495.

44. Fordex Editorial Staff, The Model T Specialist (Detroit, MI: Sales Equipment Company, 1926).

45. Tedlow, New and Improved, 163.

46. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 215, 218–19, 1069; Walter A. Friedman, Birth of a Salesman: The Transformation of Selling in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 220.

47. Senate Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Marketing Practices, Part 1, 84 Cong., 2 sess., January–March 1956, 189; H. Bertram Lewis, “It’s Nonsense to Argue That Over Allowances Create Profits,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, August 1940, 4.

48. “Motor Industry Fails to Find Panacea for Dealers’ Ills,” Business Week, 24 June 1931, 11.

49. Chicago Automobile Trade Association, Automobile Selling by Practical Salesmen (Chicago: Chicago Automobile Trace Association, 1924), 63, 69; Ford Sales Manual, Ford Research Center, 175, 1926; Selling Chevrolets: A Book of Information for Chevrolet Retail Salesmen (Detroit, MI: Chevrolet Motor Co., 1930), 91; Prentiss, Ford Products, 502.

50. Schiott, “Automobile Industry Needs.”

51. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 113; Paul H. Nystrom, Automobile Selling: A Manual for Dealers (New York: Motor Magazine 1919), 120–23.

52. Fordex Editorial Staff, Model T Specialist.

53. Prentiss, Ford Products, 496–97; “Used Cars Ruining Deals,” Literary Digest, 14 July 1923, 59–61.

54. A. R. Pinci, “The Used-Car Puzzle Can Be Solved,” Nation’s Business, November 1930, 35ff.

55. “High Lights of 1934 Dealer Operations,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, 25 June 1935, 11.

56. Paul G. Hoffman and James H. Greene, Marketing Used Cars (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1929), 8 (illustration).

57. “What Dealers Think,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, July 1936, 9.

58. James O. Spearing, “At the Wheel,” New York Times, 9 March 1930, 152.

59. Spearing, “At the Wheel”; “Junking Program Might Aid Industry,” New York Times, 2 November 1930, N118.

60. John T. Vogel, “Aiding the New Deal,” New York Times, 23 July 1933, 8; Walton Hamilton, Price and Price Policies (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1938), 73.

61. “Industry Junking Plan a Necessity!” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, February 1938, 4; “Plan Would Junk Worn Out Used Cars Systematically,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, February 1938, 6; “Dealers Endorse Industry Junking Plan,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, March 1938, 10.

62. “Used Cars Move Apace as Milwaukee Stages Spectacular Sales Drive,” Sales Management, 15 March 1938, 30–31.

63. Howard J. Cook, “Inevitable Change Coming in Automobile Retailing,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, April 1937, 8.

64. “Solve Problem of Second Hand Cars.”

65. “Trading Second Hand Cars,” New York Times, 5 January 1911, 12; “Second Hand Autos,” New York Times, 25 December 1910, 8.

66. “Second Hand Cars Worry Dealers.”

67. Hoffman and Greene, Marketing, 2–4.

68. Smith, Marketing of Used Automobiles, 106–107.

69. Ibid., 55.

70. “Manufacturers Endorse NADA Guide,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, 25 August 1935, 1.

71. Smith, Marketing of Used Automobiles, 107–12; Federal Trade Commission, Report, 365–66; “How Muskegon Controls Wild Trading,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, March 1938, 6.

72. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 374.

73. The History of Kelley Blue Book, Kelley Blue Book/Home, retrieved 1/3/2006 from www.kbb.com/kb/ki.dll/ke.kb.

74. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 374.

75. “Beware of Old ‘Shock’ Appraisal System,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, 10 February 1935, 4; Hoffman and Greene, Marketing, 58; “The Code and Competition,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, 25 June 1934, 2.

76. Smith, Marketing of Used Automobiles, 10; see also Sidney Fine, The Automobile Under the Blue Eagle: Labor, Management, and the Automobile Manufacturing Code (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1963), 133–39.

77. “Selling Cars by Code,” Business Week, 16 December 1933, 11–12; Federal Trade Commission, Report, 366.

78. “Motor Dealers Code,” Business Week, 16 September 1933, 7; “Selling Cars by Code.”

79. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 1070; The Model A Specialist: Devoted to the Advancement of the Model A Salesman, vol. 3, “The Model A by Comparison” (Detroit, MI: Sales Equipment Company, 1930), 175.

80. “Sales Control,” Edgewater Branch, Ford Motor Company, Ford Research Center, 449, 9, 1936

81. Smith, Marketing of Used Automobiles, 123.

82. “A New Era in Factory-Dealer Relations,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, 10 March 1934, 3.

83. Ibid.

84. F. W. A. Vesper, “Auto Dealer Code Protects Public,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, 25 March 1934, 6; “The Dealer Down the Street,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, 10 June 1934, 2.

85. “Sales Code Is Weighed,” New York Times, 20 August 1933, 6.

86. “Used Car Menace Being Recognized,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, 10 July 1935, 7; Federal Trade Commission, Report, 337–38.

87. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 399.

88. “The Used Car Problem Is Still with Us,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, 25 September 1934, 1; Smith, Marketing of Used Automobiles, 133.

89. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 368, 376.

90. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 405–06; “Auto Dealers Want Price Laws,” Business Week, 6 February 1937, 7.

91. Hewitt, “Automobile Franchise Agreements,” 149–50; Federal Trade Commission, Report, 249.

92. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 366.

93. Ibid., 384.

94. Ibid., 370.

95. Ibid., 390–92.

96. William C. Callahan, “Output Gain in Quarter,” New York Times, 15 February 1940, 128; William Ullman, “Auto Trade Before FTC,” New York Times, 17 March 1940, 146; “Auto Dealers Bar Bill for FTC Rule,” New York Times, 2 April 1940, 46; Art Spinella et al., America’s Auto Dealer: The Master Merchandisers (Van Nuys, CA: Freed-Crown, 1978), 65.

97. “Ceilings on Autos,” Business Week, 17 June 1944, 32–35.

98. “OPA Warns Dealers on New Car Sales,” New York Times, 17 May 1943, 21.

99. John Desmond, “Used Car Market Hits Peak,” New York Times, 5 September 1943, 10.

100. “History of Kelley Blue Book”; Kenyon Lee, “Gold Rush Days for the Used Car,” New York Times, 31 October 1943, 12; “Ceiling Threat,” Business Week, 19 February 1944, 90–91.

101. “OPA Moves to Curb Used Auto Frauds,” New York Times, 23 June 1944, 21; “Used Car Ceilings Begin Tomorrow,” New York Times, 10 July 1944, 38; James J. Nagle, “Big Black Market Cited in Used Cars,” New York Times, 20 August 1944, 5; “OPA Investigates 21,000 Car Sales,” New York Times, 12 February 1944, 26.

102. Thomas Byrnes, Selling Sense (Dearborn, MI: Ford Motor Co, 1954), 28–29.

103. Elmo Roper, “A Report from 1952 Ford and Chevrolet Owners on Their New Cars and Dealers,” Vol. II, 1952, record group 695, box 3, Ford Research Center; Elmo Roper, “A Report from 1952 Ford and Chevrolet Owners on Their New Cars and Dealers,” Vol. I, 1952, record group 695, box 3, Ford Research Center.

104. “Use Buyer Cunning, Auto Dealers Hear,” New York Times, 8 December 1958, 16.

105. Richard Munro, How to Sell Cars: A Complete Manual on Selling New and Used Cars and Trucks (Toronto: General Publishing Co., 1962), 44; C. E. Groves, How to Buy Automobiles (New York: Information Inc., 1970), 24; Julie Candler, “How to Deal with a New-Car Dealer,” Mechanix Illustrated, October 1983, 94.

106. Debra Sherman, “Ex-Car Dealer Tells All,” Ms., November 1988, 70.

107. Joy Browne, The Used-Car Game: A Sociology of the Bargain (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1973), 40–43, 50–51; Helene M. Lawson, “Service Values-Profit Goals: The Divided Selves of Car Sales Women” (Ph.D. diss., Loyola University of Chicago, 1991), 122; James Bennet, “A Charm School for Car Salesmen,” New York Times, 29 March 1995, 1; Benjamin Cheever, “How to Sell Cars,” New Yorker, 1 May 2000, 144.

108. W. Dayton Wegefarth, “Professional Advice,” Lippincott’s Magazine, March 1909, 408.

109. For example, see, Helene M. Lawson, Ladies on the Lot: Women, Car Sales, and the Pursuit of the American Dream (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), 32–33.

110. Newmark, Automobile Salesmanship, 100.

111. Automobile Trade Association, Automobile Selling by Practical Salesmen, 11–13.

112. Bruce Throckmorton, “Boundary Roles and Occupational Integration: An Examination of the Automobile Salesman” (Ph.D. diss., University of Washington, 1973), 34.

113. Browne, Used-Car Game, 12.

114. “The Dealer Down the Street”; Martin H. Bury, The Automobile Dealer (Philadelphia: Philpenn Publishing, 1958), 164–65.

115. Munro, How to Sell, 8; Leo Levine, “Honest Dishonesty, or Do Unto Others as They Do Unto You,” Motor Trend, February 1969, 67; J. Michel White, Buying Your Next Car: How to Stick It to the Dealers Before the Dealer Can Stick It to You (Tucson, AZ: Harbinger House, 1993), 37.

116. Darrell Parrish, The Car Buyer’s Art … How to Beat the Salesman at His Own Game (Bellflower, CA: Book Express, 1992), 143.

117. “Sell Your Car Yourself and Get More,” Changing Times, June 1971, 32; “Sell Your Car the Way a Dealer Would,” Changing Times, February 1977, 11–12.

118. R. P. Stevenson, “Upping Your Car’s Value,” Popular Science, September 1950, 207–11.

119. Mike Willingham, The New Car Dealer’s Secret Agenda: An Insider’s View of Dealer Strategies, Salesman’s Tactics, the Finance Office Trick and Ploys, and How You Can Be in Charge of Negotiations (Melbourne, FL: National Negotiating Services, 1992), 21.

120. Marc H. Stertz, “Odds & Ends,” Automotive Executive, September 1995, 3; Levine, “Honest Dishonesty.”

121. Levine, “Honest Dishonesty.”

122. “Autos: Every Car Must Go!” [Display Ad], New York Times, 19 May 1907, 10; see also “Announcing Series Eight Cole” [Display Ad], New York Times, 23 September 1912.

123. “Challenge Sale! Good Automobiles” [Display Ad], New York Times, 5 April 1904, 7.

124. “Novel Used Car Trick,” New York Times, 11 July 1915, 10; Fred J. Wagner, “Let the Buyer Beware When It Comes to Used Car Deals,” House Beautiful, October 1915, 14; “Auto Prices Dropped” [Display Ad], New York Times, 23 August 1907, 8.

125. “Widow Must Sell Fine Car at Terrible Sacrifice,” Literary Digest, 10 April 1920, 104–109.

126. “Looks and Runs Like New: Reminiscences of an Old-Time Secondhand Car Dealer,” Saturday Evening Post, 18 April 1925, 162.

127. Colwell, “Advice on Buying,” 32.

128. Nystrom, Automobile Selling: A Manual for Dealers, 109; “The Truthful Tale of Gettby Who Sold Old Cars,” Literary Digest, 22 May 1920, 109–11; Ralph Baker, “Watch Your Step,” Review of Reviews, August 1935, 25.

129. Ryland P. Madison, “The Automobile,” Country Life, 15 March 1912, 47–58; see also Douglas Robinson, “Clinics for Ailing Autos Use Latest Equipment,” New York Times, 31 March 1968, 27; Michael Lamm, “How to Become a Smiling Used Car Buyer,” Popular Mechanics, June 1970, 70.

130. Ralph Blumenthal, “8 Used Car Dealers Are Charged with Deceptive Trade Practices,” New York Times, 17 January 1980, 11.

131. C. H. Claudy, “New or Second Hand?” Country Life in America, September 1914, 96–99; Martin Bunn, “Traps to Avoid in Buying a Used Car,” Popular Science Monthly, October 1934, 68–69; idem, “Gus Drives a Bargain,” Popular Science, February 1942, 142–44; Robert J. Bohaty, “Somebody Wants Your Car,” American Magazine, October 1953, 83; Elliott Arnold, “The Misused-Car Market,” Reader’s Digest, November 1936, 107–08; Carl Isica, “The Fine Art of Used Car Buying,” Motor Trend, September 1964, 66–69; Duane L. Gregg, “A Close Look at Used Car Buying,” Better Homes and Gardens, May 1969, 44–47; idem, “How to Get the Most from Your Car at Trade-in Time,” Better Homes and Gardens, September 1970, 12.

132. L. J. Brum, How to Beat the Car Dealer at His Own Game: Buying a New or Used Car (San Jose, CA: B-M Consumer Publications, 1981), 33.

133. Willingham, New Car Dealer’s Secret, 46; Lamm, “How to Become,” 85.

134. Isica, “Fine Art,” 66; Diana Bartley, “How to Buy a Used Car,” Esquire, March 1968, 117–18.

135. Warren Weith, “A Good Car is Hard to Find. So’s an Honest Man,” Car and Driver, July 1976, 20; see also Robert J. Gottlieb, “Classic Comments: A Not So Simple Case of Larceny,” Motor Trend, March 1977.

136. Gregory Hill, How to Sell Your Car for More Than It’s Worth (Rosemead, CA: Gregory Publications, 1977), 15.

137. Ibid., 91.

138. Ibid., 81.

139. Bunn, “Gus Drives a Bargain.”

140. Wagner, “Let the Buyer Beware.”

141. “Looks and Runs,” 166–68.

142. Cliff Knoble, Automobile Selling Sense: A Book on the Merchandising of Motor Cars, Prepared in the Good Interest of Distributor, Dealer, and Salesman (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1923), 181.

143. R. N. McGraw, “We Sold 1350 Used Cars in 1936,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, March 1937, 3.

144. O. G. Bechtel, “Hints to Motor Car Buyers and Sellers,” New York Times, 7 January 1912, 13.

145. “Looks and Runs,” 22.

146. C. H. Claudy, “Buying the Second Car First,” Country Life in America, September 1915, 72–76; “Used Car Dealers—See How They Operate,” Changing Times, September 1972, 10.

147. “Truthful Tale”; Baker, “Watch Your Step”; Arnold, “Misused-Car”; Bohaty, “Somebody Wants”; “Queens Studying ‘New Car’ Racket,” New York Times, 20 July 1962, 27.

148. E. D. Fales Jr., “Can We Stamp Out Speedometer Rigging?” Popular Science, January 1961, 60.

149. Robert J. Cole, “Personal Finance,” New York Times, 1 March 1973, 57; John D. Morris, “Automobile Sellers Are Now Required to Certify Mileage,” New York Times, 2 March 1973, 70; Fales, “Can We Stamp Out.”

150. Charles W. Bishop, “Proposed Fair Trade Practice Rules for the Automobile Industry,” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, March 1939, 13.

151. Bury, Automobile Dealer, 48–49.

152. Fales, “Can We Stamp Out”; Gene Ritzinger, “Selling Old Autos,” Wall Street Journal, 20 June 1962, 1; Sam Crowther and Irwin Winehouse, Highway Robbery (New York: Stein and Day, 1966), 41, 50.

153. “Buying a Used Car? I’ll Cheat You If You Don’t Watch Out,” Popular Science, December 1967, 76–78; “Does the Odometer Lie? If It Does You May Never Know,” Consumer Reports, April 1985, 186–87.

154. James E. Scripture, “Odometer Rollback Schemes,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 59 (August 1990): 8–12.

155. “Car Odometer Designed to Prevent Tampering,” New York Times, 21 January 1976, 94.

156. Joseph F. Sullivan, “U.S. Finds Used Car Odometer Frauds in Jersey,” New York Times, 12 November 1976, 13; “Odometer Fraud Cited,” New York Times, 18 January 1977, 67; “7 Car Dealers Admit Odometer Tampering,” New York Times, 18 February 1977, 21; “Auto Fraud Is Charged,” New York Times, 9 June 1977, 27; “Eight Car Dealers Fined for Rolling Back Meters,” New York Times, 15 July 1977, 19; “Fraud Charged to Auto Dealer,” New York Times, 6 April 1977, 24; Arnold H. Lubasch, “3 Auto Dealers in Bronx Indicted on Charges of Altering Odometers,” New York Times, 18 April 1978, 32; “Odometer Fraud Charged,” New York Times, 1 July 1978, 43.

157. “Odometer Fraud up, Federal Officials Say,” New York Times, 3 September 1996, 9; Cathy Nikkel, “Odometer Fraud Heats Up,” Motor Trend, November 1996, 32; Arlena Sawyers, “The Twisted History of a Used Lexus RX 300,” Automotive News, 18 April 2005, 49.

158. Micheline Maynard, “Playing Used Car Detective, Online,” New York Times, 29 July 2002, 10; Sawyers, “The Twisted History.”

FIVE: The Triumph of the Price Pack

1. Paul M. Millians, “The Dealer and His Public,” Commercial and Financial Chronicle, 12 September 1946, 1385.

2. C. E. Groves, How to Buy Automobiles (New York: Information Incorporated, 1970), 114–15; Art Spinella et al., America’s Auto Dealer: The Master Merchandisers (Van Nuys, CA: Freed-Crown, 1978), 67.

3. Charles Grutzner, “OPA Centers Drive on New Auto Fraud,” New York Times, 25 June 1946, 23.

4. C. P. Trussell, “New Car Buyers Held Stung $450,000 in 7 Months,” New York Times, 11 November 1948, 1; C. P. Trussell, “Buyers in 30 States Hit New Car Deals,” New York Times, 18 November 1948, 31.

5. OPA Bans Rentals with Auto Tie-Ins,” New York Times, 15 November 1946, 14.

6. “New Car Delay, Dealer Discount, Black Market Told Public in Ads,” N.A.D.A. Magazine, June 1946, 7–8; “How Dealer Associations Are Meeting a Public Relations Problem,” N.A.D.A. Magazine, September 1946, 29; “Public Relations Program of Dealers Expanding Throughout Nation,” N.A.D.A. Magazine, October 1946, 7.

7. “OPA Order Hailed by Auto Dealers,” New York Times, 14 August 1946, 18.

8. “Used Car Racket,” Life, 16 June 1947, 95–96; William S. Dutton, “Don’t Shoot Your Car Dealer,” Saturday Evening Post, 4 December 1948, 32–33.

9. Dutton, “Don’t Shoot,” 32.

10. “Resale Racket Under Fire,” Business Week, 26 July 1947.

11. “Gray Market Wins,” Business Week, 16 September 1950, 65–66; John D. Morris, “24 Ford Agencies Lose Franchises,” New York Times, 16 December 1948, 46.

12. “Will Automobile Retailing Come to This?” N.A.D.A. Bulletin, July 1936, 2; Federal Trade Commission, Report on Motor Vehicle Industry, Rep. No. 76–House Document No. 468 (1939), 121.

13. Don Wharton, “So You Want a New Car,” Reader’s Digest, August 1947, 61; “The Used Car Deal,” Fortune, September 1948, 132.

14. “Gray Market”; Morris, “24 Ford Agencies.”

15. “Detroit Hot Potato,” Business Week, 22 November 1947, 49–50; “Car Price Gouge Fought,” Business Week, 16 August 1947, 21.

16. Trussell, “Buyers in 30 States”; J. R. Davis, “Pitfalls of Seller’s Market in the Automobile Industry,” Commercial and Financial Chronicle, 16 September 1948, 1097; W. G. Patton, “Complaints of Unfair Dealer Practices Plague Auto Producers,” Iron Age, 20 November 1947, 122–28.

17. George Melloan, “Chevy Factory Tagged at $2,220 Shows up at Dealers Near $3,100,” Wall Street Journal, 11 November 1957, 18; “On Motor Row,” Wall Street Journal, 18 March 1957, 1; House Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Labeling, 85 Cong., 2 sess., 28 May 1958, 4.

18. Senate Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Marketing Practices, 84 Cong., 2 sess., January–March 1956, 624, 635; Senate Automobile Marketing Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Price Labeling, 85 Cong., 2 sess., 21–24 April 1958, 23.

19. Ray Goldman, “Does It Pay to Buy a Car Costing Less Than $500?” Illustrated World, September 1917, 99–101; Waldemar Kaempffert, “The Average Man and His Perfect Automobile,” McClure’s, February 1917, 27; Bryan Baker, “How I Handle a Prospect with a Used Car to Trade,” in Automobile Selling by Practical Salesmen (Chicago: Chicago Automobile Trace Association, 1924), 58.

20. “Ford Sales Manual,” 1926, Ford Research Center, record group 175.

21. “Retail Organization / Sales of Accessories,” 31 December, 1928, Detroit Sales Department, Ford Research Center, record group 509, box 5.

22. Service department, “Sale of Accessories 6–1–33,” 1933, Detroit, Ford Research Center, record group 509, box 5.

23. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 49–51, 111, 248; Theodore H. Smith, The Marketing of Used Automobiles (Columbus, OH: Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University, 1941), 114–15.

24. “Dealers Sensitive,” Business Week, 24 August 1946, 24; “They Call It Optional,” Fortune, December 1947, 138–39.

25. “Here is Just What You’ve Been Looking for,” NADA Magazine, January 1947, n.p.; “Dealers’ Public Relations Challenged,” NADA Magazine, April 1947, 14.

26. “Recommendations to Tell Your Story,” NADA Magazine, July 1947, 6; “The Truth About the Current Automobile Situation,” NADA Magazine, February 1949, n.p.; Trussell, “New Car Buyers Held Stung $450,000 in 7 Months.”

27. Martin H. Bury, The Automobile Dealer (Philadelphia: Philpenn Publishing, 1958), 27.

28. Nowland and Company, “Automobile Bootlegging: Pilot Study of Consumer Motives,” ca. 1956, Ford Research Center, record group 695, box 6.

29. Senate Subcommittee, Automobile Marketing, Part 1, 206, 224, 733.

30. Ibid., Part 1, 436; Anthony Lewis, “U.S. Opens Inquiry Into Price Fixing by Auto Dealers,” New York Times, 12 April 1958, 1.

31. Senate Automobile Marketing Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Price Labeling, 85 Cong., 2 sess., 21–24 April 1958, 7.

32. Donald MacDonald, “How to Buy a New Car,” American Home, December 1959, 96–100.

33. Joe Car [Denny Armstrong], I’m a Legal Hold Up Man, I’m a Car Salesman (Shawnee Mission, KA: Joe Car, 1977), 24; “Toyota Distributor Accused of ‘Bait and Switch’ Tactics,” Automotive News, 9 June 1980, 4; L. J. Brum, How to Beat the Car Dealer at His Own Game: Buying a New or Used Car (San Jose, CA: B-M Consumer Publications, 1981), 14–15; Jerry Flint, “How to Bargain for a New Car,” Readers Digest, May 1986, 149–51; “Car Buying Without Fear,” U.S. News and World Report, 12 October 1987, 76.

34. Helen Kahn, “County Charges Chain Dealer Deceived Buyers,” Automotive News, 29 February 1988, 58.

35. “The Future of the Auto Industry,” Automobile Executive, July 1993, 26.

36. “Dealership Financial Trends,” Automotive Executive, August 1994, 51.

37. Annelena Lobb, “Six Dirty Secrets of Car Sales,” CNN/Money, 10 January 2003, CNN; retrieved 15/1/03 from http://cnnmoney.printthis.

38. Ted Orme, “Aftermarket / Accessories,” Automotive Executive, August 1985, 37–41.

39. Leonard Felman, “Chemicals & Protectants,” Automobile Executive, July 1985, 21.

40. C. B. Robertson, How to Deal on an Automobile (Lyons, CO: Blue Mountain Publishing, 1990), 53; Felman, “Chemicals & Protectants”; Tom Nitch, “Appearance Maintenance,” Automotive Executive, March 1985, 29–37; Kurt Allen Weiss, Have I Got a Deal for You! How to Buy or Lease any Car Without Getting Run Over (Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press, 1997), 140.

41. Lendol Calder, Financing the American Dream: A Cultural History of Consumer Credit (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999), 17.

42. Jas. S. Holmes Jr., “Marketing Automobiles,” Cycle and Automobile Trade Journal, 1 January 1901, 24–25.

43. Spinella, America’s Auto Dealer, 31.

44. Day Allen Willey, “Who Can Afford an Automobile?” Good Housekeeping, May 1909, 476.

45. Calder, Financing the American Dream, 186–88.

46. Ibid., 192–95; Smith, Marketing of Used Automobiles, 177–79; Ralph C. Epstein, The Automobile Industry: Its Economic and Commercial Development (Chicago: A. W. Shaw, 1928), 116–19.

47. Walter A. Friedman, Birth of a Salesman: The Transformation of Selling in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 196–97; Donald Rea Hanson, “Downtown: Buying on Installment,” Forum, 1 January 1926, 34; see also Martha L. Olney, Buy Now, Pay Later: Advertising, Credit, and Consumer Durables in the 1920s (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989), 118–20.

48. Calder, Financing the American Dream, 31.

49. Ibid., 191–99.

50. Norman G. Shidle, “Telling the Public What It Costs,” Automotive Industries, 12 November 1923, 807–809.

51. Charles F. Ronayne, “Is Installment Buying Sound?” Forum and Century, September 1937, 114–16; “G.M. III: How to Sell Automobiles,” Fortune, February 1939, 106; Federal Trade Commission, Report, 221.

52. William Longgood, “Watch Out for Those Gyp Car Deals!” Saturday Evening Post, 29 October 1955, 27; Albert Q. Maisel, “The Art of Buying a New Car,” Reader’s Digest, November 1957, 48–51.

53. Nowland and Company, “Bootlegging.”

54. Senate Subcommittee, Automobile Marketing Practices, Part 1, 235.

55. Nowland and Company, “Bootlegging.”

56. “Trading-in the Old Way,” Economist, 26 October 1985, 85–86.

57. H. J. Maidenberg, “Personal Finance: Discovering Why New-Car Salesmen Are Frightened by the Sight of Cash,” New York Times, 20 April 1967, 61; Groves, How to Buy Automobiles, 46–50; Car, I’m a Legal Hold Up Man, 10.

58. Dennis Rockstroh, “Beware Financing Car Through Dealerships,” San Jose Mercury News, 30 April 2006, b: 3; idem, “New Law Helps Clarify Dealership Financing,” San Jose Mercury News, 9 May 2006, b: 3.

59. Monica Langley, “Cut Rate Loans on Some Cars Are No Bargain,” Wall Street Journal, 20 August 1986, 17; William M. Graves Jr., “Selling Your Way to F&I Success,” Automotive Executive, August 1984, 33–34; “F&I: Only for Those Interested in Making Money,” Automotive Executive, September 1981, 34; Ed Henry, “How Buyers Win the Haggle and Lose the War,” Kiplinger’s Personal Finance Magazine, October 1997, 101–105.

60. John Keats, The Insolent Chariots (Greenwich, CT: Fawcett Publications, 1958), 140.

61. Ibid., 86–113.

62. Leon Mandel, Driven: The American Four-Wheeled Love Affair (New York: Stein and Day, 1977), 125–33; John K. Teahen Jr., “Let’s Make a Deal,” Automotive News, 16 September 1983, 278–79; Chandler Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 2004, part 8: parting shots, Edmunds.Com; retrieved 12/9/2004 from www.edmunds.com/advice/buying/articles/42962/, 45.

63. James J. Flink, The Automobile Age (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988), 281–82.

64. J. Eustace Wolfington, “”The Customer,” “Thinking Through,” N.A.D.A. Magazine, February 1951, 42, 46.

65. James A. Ayers, “Bunk, Bosh, and Bother,” N.A.D.A. Magazine, February 1951, 46.

66. Elson G. Sims, “Key to Success—Profit Control,” National Automobile Dealers Association, 1957 NADA Convention and Exhibition Publicity, vol. II, News Release, 30 January, 1957, San Francisco, National Automobile Dealers Association, McClean, Va.

67. Ibid.

68. Bert Pierce, “Car Dealers Ethics Assailed by McKay,” New York Times, 14 January 1954, 54.

69. William C. Hamilton, “What’s Wrong?” NADA Magazine, November 1954, 20–25.

70. John A. Williamson, “A Price Is a Price Is a Price,” NADA Magazine, July 1957, 14–16.

71. “Car Merchandising Using New Concept,” New York Times, 11 September 1955, 1; Frederick Bell, “The Moorish Market,” NADA Magazine, September 1954, 15.

72. “Used Car Business: A Comeback,” Business Week, 3 April 1954, 104–106.

73. House Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Marketing Legislation, 84 Cong., 1 sess., 6 July 1955–2 May 1956, 23.

74. Nowland and Company, “Bootlegging”; Senate Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, The Automobile Labeling Bill, Report to Accompany S. 3500, 85 Cong., 2 sess., 13 May 1958, 13; Senate Subcommittee, Automobile Marketing Practices, Part 1, 14.

75. Nowland and Company, “Bootlegging.”

76. “A Basic Change in Auto Selling,” Business Week, 3 March 1956, 104–105; A. S. Mike Monroney, “Free Markets for Free Men” [speech transcript], in 1956 Nada Convention and Exhibition Publicity, vol. 16 (Washington D.C.: NADA Convention News Center: press release, 31 January 1956), 12, National Automobile Dealers Association, Mc-Clean, Va.; Senate Subcommittee, Automobile Marketing Practices, Part 1, 501.

77. Keats, Insolent Chariots, 101; Senate Subcommittee, Automobile Marketing Practices, Part 1, 287, 313, 727.

78. Senate Subcommittee, Automobile Marketing Practices, Part 1, 306–09.

79. Martin H. Bury, “With the Right Program You Can Forget the Used Car Problem,” NADA Magazine, July 1950, 14–15; Jane Wilcox, “How A Sailor Sells Cars,” Advertising and Selling, May 1946, 80; Sam Crowther and Irwin Winehouse, Highway Robbery (New York: Stein and Day, 1966), 38–39.

80. C. P. Edwards, “The Used Car Racket,” Popular Mechanics, January 1933, 26–29.

81. Senate Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, The Automobile Marketing Practices Study, 84 Cong., 19 January 1956.

82. Foster Hailey, “Car Dealers Seek to Check Losses,” New York Times, 6 October 1954, 26; “Senators Will Study Auto Sales Practices,” New York Times, 26 December 1955, 1.

83. David C. Corbin, President, City Chevrolet, Akron, Ohio, “How to Clean up False and Misleading Advertising on the Local Level,” (Washington DC: NADA Convention News Center: press release, 31 January 1956), National Automobile Dealers Association, McClean, Va.

84. “Auto Dealers, BBB to Fight False Ads,” Editor and Publisher, 28 January 1956, 20; Keats, Insolent Chariots, 100.

85. Frank H. Yarnall, “It’s Still a Great Industry” (Washington DC: NADA Convention News Center: press release, 30 January 1956), National Automobile Dealers Association, McClean, Va.

86. House Subcommittee, Automobile Labeling, 7–9.

87. Joseph C. Ingraham, “Automobiles: Ethics,” New York Times, 1 September 1957, 21–23; “Phony Car Deals Reported on Rise,” New York Times, 14 November 1957, 67.

88. Senate Subcommittee, Automobile Marketing Practices, Part 1, 994.

89. “New Price Laws Bring Change to Auto Pitch,” Sponsor, 4 July 1959, 32–33.

90. Joseph B. Paul, “The Apples at the Bottom of the Barrel,” NADA Magazine, June 1962, 48–49; “Study Finds Men Distrust Most Auto Ads,” Advertising Age, 15 October 1973, 95.

91. Carl D. Dalke, “Fighting Bad Advertising,” NADA Magazine, March 1963, 79.

92. Groves, How to Buy Automobiles, 63–81.

93. “Cahill, Dealers Vow Truth in Auto Ads,” New York Times, 13 May 1973, 92; Rudy Johnson, “Used Car Dealers Are Sending in Payments on Fines for False Ads,” New York Times, 26 January 1977, 19.

94. Joy Browne, The Used-Car Game: A Sociology of the Bargain (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1973), 45; Michael deCourcy Hinds, “New York and Other States Cracking Down on Auto Ads,” New York Times, 19 November 1988, 52.

95. Joseph B. Paul, “Fighting Bad Advertising,” NADA Magazine, March 1963, 75; David Ogilvy, “What’s Wrong with Your Image,” NADA Magazine, March 1965, 56–57.

96. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 1077.

97. Smith, Marketing of Used Automobiles, 114.

98. Senate Automobile Marketing Subcommittee, Automobile Price Labeling.

99. Ibid., 2–3, 13, 27; Monroney, “Free Markets for Free Men.”

100. Senate Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, The Automobile Labeling Bill, Report to Accompany S. 3500, 85 Cong., 2 sess., 13 May 1958, 40; “Dealers Endorse Car Price Labels,” New York Times Magazine, 22 April 1958, 25.

101. Joseph C. Ingraham, “New Car Sales Law to Help the Buyer,” New York Times, 14 September 1958, 25.

102. Senate Automobile Marketing Subcommittee, Automobile Price Labeling, 3, 30; see also Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Administered Prices: Automobiles, 85 Cong., 2 sess., 1 November 1958.

103. Ingraham, “New Car Sales Law to Help the Buyer.”

104. “Auto Men to Play Down Prices,” Business Week, 26 July 1958, 19; Bury, Automobile Dealer, 22.

105. “42 in Washington Indicted in Plot to Fix Car Prices,” New York Times, 24 July 1958, 1; “Car Price Fixing Laid to 8 Groups,” New York Times, 26 March 1959, 32.

106. Joseph C. Ingraham, “U.S. Will Enforce Auto Label Law,” New York Times, 23 August 1959, 58.

107. Bury, Automobile Dealer, 22.

108. Senate Automobile Marketing Subcommittee, Automobile Price Labeling, 3.

109. “A Consolidation of Dealer Questions with Answers on Public Law 85–506,” NADA Magazine, November 1962, 29.

110. “Far-Reaching Effects of the Truth-in-Labeling Law,” NADA Magazine, October 1959, 15–19; “Everybody Loves Posted Prices,” Business Week, 20 December 1958, 24–25.

111. “Use Buyer Cunning, Auto Dealers Hear”; for similar dealer belief, see Lois Cohorst, High Mileage: Behind Every Successful Car Dealer Is a Woman With Jumper Cables and a Tow Rope (Hillsboro, KS: Hearth Publishing, 1995), 90.

112. “Prices, a Starting Point for Bargaining,” Consumer Reports, April 1963, 162–63.

113. FTC Plans Probe of Auto Pricing,” Advertising Age, 26 May 1969, 1; D. N. Williams, “New Car Prices: Ouija Board Please,” Iron Age, 25 September 1969, 21; “Auto Pricing and Retail Billing Practices Hit in FTC Proposals,” Advertising Age, 12 October 1970, 2; “Big Three Auto Firms Oppose FTC Proposal on Car Sticker Prices,” Wall Street Journal, 13 January 1971, 12.

114. “Price Advisory Notice to Appear on GM Models,” Wall Street Journal, 13 July 1973, 16.

115. Groves, How to Buy Automobiles, 121.

116. “Direct Selling Now Challenges Dealer’s Place in Motor Industry,” Business Week, 9 September 1931, 13–14.

117. “Chrysler Dealer Rolling with Idea for Guarantee,” New York Times, 28 January 1980, 2; “Chrysler Guarantee,” New York Times, 8 September 1980, 4.

118. Stertz, “Odds & Ends.”

119. “Had to Push New Auto,” New York Times, 30 June 1906, 7.

120. “Bargains in New Automobiles” [display ad], New York Times, 22 November 1908, 2.

121. Stephen L. McIntyre, “The Repair Man Will Gyp You: Mechanics, Managers, and Customers in the Automobile Repair Industry, 1896–1940” (Ph.D. diss., University of Missouri-Columbia, 1995), 379–80, 388–89; M. Worth Colwell, “Advice on Buying and Selling a Second-Hand Machine,” House Beautiful, January 1913, 30–34.

122. George Strobridge, “Value of Service Station to Automobile Buyers,” New York Times, 6 January 1924, 10.

123. William Ullman, “New Guaranty for Buyer,” New York Times, 22 November 1931, 148.

124. Teahen, “Let’s Make a Deal,” 380–82.

125. “Battle of Warranties: How Far Will It Go?” Steel, 8 April 1963, 95–96; “Trouble in New Car Warranties?” Business Week, 26 November 1960, 55–56; “Detroit Tries a U-Turn on Warranties,” Business Week, 25 July 1970, 44–45.

126. “Detroit Tries a U-Turn”; Ronald Sullivan, “Warranties Widened by American Motors,” New York Times, 11 August 1971, 1.

127. Mary B. Kegley and Janine S. Hiller, “Emerging Lemon Car Laws,” American Business Law Journal (Spring 1986): 87–103; Leonard Sloane, “Seeking Satisfaction If There’s No Quick Fix,” New York Times, 31 July 1994, 1.

128. “John M. Brisben Co., Inc.” [Classified Ad], New York Times, 18 January 1914, 4; “False Pretense in Selling Second Hand Cars,” Literary Digest, 20 October 1923, 69.

129. Milton Mayer, “Dissenting Opinion,” Consumer Reports, May 1950, 207.

130. Paul G. Hoffman and James H. Greene, Marketing Used Cars (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1929), 24.

131. Federal Trade Commission, Report, 227–28; Ralph Weaver, “How Our 30–Day Guarantee Boosted Used Car Gross,” Ford Dealer Magazine, September/October 1955, 972.

132. Micheline Maynard, “Why Dealers Are Putting a New Shine on Used Cars,” New York Times, 15 April 2001, 12.

133. George A. Akerlof, “The Market for ‘Lemons’ Reconsidered: A Model of the Used Car Market with Asymmetric Information,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 84, no. 3 (August 1970): 488–500; George A. Akerlof, “Writing the ‘The Market for Lemons’: A Personal and Interpretive Essay,” retrieved 11/14/2003 from http://nobelprize.org.

134. “Used Car Reforms,” Business Week, 23 February 1935, 8; “Caveat Venditor,” Time, 16 November 1953, 97–98; “Mileage Must Be Posted on Used Cars Sold Here,” New York Times, 29 September 1969, 40; Richard Phalon, “Used Car Sellers Face Stiff Rules,” New York Times, 10 May 1970, 88; Andrew O. Shapiro, “Hoodwinked No More: Tips for the Used-Car Buyer,” New York Times, 30 October 1978, 104–105.

135. “Unless Excluded or Modified,” Automotive Executive, January 1980, 34.

136. “Sellers Beware,” The Economist, 10 January 1976, 54.

137. “Used Car Dealers Face FTC Action to Bar Deception,” New York Times, 3 January 1976, 1.

138. Helen Kahn, “Sticker on U.C. Condition Moving Near FTC Order,” Automotive News, 12 June 1978, 1; Helen Kahn and Jake Kelderman, “Used Car Proposals Illegal, Unjustified, Dealers Tell FTC,” Automotive News, 19 February 1979, 1. For a theoretical confirmation of the NIADA claim, see Michael Metzger, “Cherries, Lemons, and the FTC: Minimum Quality Standards in the Retail Used Automobile Industry,” Economic Inquiry, January 1983.

139. Minard, “This Cream Puff”; “FTC Staff Urges More Facts on Used Cars by Dealers, but Omits Repair Disclosures,” Wall Street Journal, 14 November 1978, 14; Kahn and Kelderman, “Used Car Proposals.”

140. A. O. Sulzberger Jr., “New Rule Voted on Disclosures on Used Autos,” New York Times, 17 May 1980, 3.

141. Russell Baker, “Barnum Lives On,” New York Times, 29 May 1982, 23; Jeff Angoff, “The Used Car Capital,” New York Times, 7 December 1981, 27; Michael deCourcy Hinds, “Rule on Used Cars Rejected by Panel,” New York Times, 11 December 1981, 17; idem, “Used Car Rule: Lesson in Lobbying,” New York Times, 12 May 1982, 26; “Congress Vetoes FTC Rules on Disclosure of Car Defects,” New York Times, 27 May 1982, 1.

142. Helen Kahn, “FTC Begins U.C. Educational Drive,” Automotive News, 17 October 1983, 15; idem, “Next Move on U.C. Rule up to FTC,” Automotive News, 18 July 1983, 40.

143. Federal Trade Commission, Trade regulation rule; sale of used motor vehicles (1988).

SIX: Bad Guys

1. How to Run a Retail Automobile Business at a Profit (Chicago: A. W. Shaw Co., 1917), 29–30, 35; P. M. Braun, “General Letter #51: Payment of Salesmen,” 27 February 1926, Ford Research Center, box 3, File: ACC 509; “Commissions Paid Salesmen,” Ford Motor Co., 1935, Ford Research Center, box 7, File: 449; William Beltz, “Encourage Your Salesmen to Sell,” NADA Magazine, July 1955, 18–20; Mary Anne Sarey, “Pay Daze,” Automotive Executive, February 1998, 34–36; Chandler Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 2004, part 8: parting shots, retrieved 12/9/2004 from www.edmunds.com/advice/buying/articles/42962/, 12.

2. Martin H. Bury, The Automobile Dealer (Philadelphia: Philpenn Publishing, 1958), 10; C. B. Robertson, How to Deal on an Automobile (Lyons, CO: Blue Mountain Publishing, 1990), 33.

3. C. E. Groves, How to Buy Automobiles (New York: Information Incorporated, 1970), 124; Steve Finlay, “Salesman’s Wife Laments,” Ward’s Dealer Business, 1 July 2003, retrieved 9/10/04 from http://wdb.wardsausto.com/magazinearticle; Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman.”

4. Walter A. Friedman, Birth of a Salesman: The Transformation of Selling in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 4–13, 218–24.

5. Selling Chevrolets: A Book of Information for Chevrolet Retail Salesmen (Detroit, MI: Chevrolet Motor Co., 1930), 36.

6. “Autos: Joe,” Newsweek, 2 July 1973, 62–63; Ron Rogers, “The Super Salesmen,” Cars and Trucks, February 1979, 20–25.

7. “Autos: Joe”; Rogers, “Super Salesmen.”

8. Louise Closser Hale, A Motor Car Divorce (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1906), 148–51; Harold Whiting Slauson, “The Man Who Sells the Car,” Harper’s Weekly, 3 August 1912, 11–12; “Motor Salesmen to Be Mounted,” New York Times, 31 March 1912, 10; “Selling Motor Cars Real Business Now,” New York Times, 12 January 1913, 11.

9. R. G. Kelsey, “Salesman’s Duties to His Customers,” New York Times, 8 January 1911, 2; Homer McKee, “Intensified Sales—the Problem of the Automobile Industry,” Harper’s Weekly, 5 October 1912, 24.

10. “Be an Automobile Salesman” [Display Ad], McClure’s Magazine, June 1916, 81.

11. Harold M. Parker, “Learning to Sell Autos at School,” Illustrated World, April 1918, 262; Jacob H. Newmark, Automobile Salesmanship (Detroit, MI: Automobile Publishing Co., 1915), 19.

12. W. C. Sills, Sales Talks: Being a Series of Man-to-Man Articles, Instructive and Inspirational (New York: Chevrolet Motor Co., 1920).

13. C. D. Paxson, How to Sell Automobiles (Cleveland, OH: C. D. Paxson, 1917): 46–47.

14. “Guide to Materials for Dealership Personnel Development,” Ford Divisions, Ford Motor Company, 1952, Ford Research Center, Acc 951, 7; George M. Riveire Jr., “Your Salesmen Can Sell More,” NADA Magazine, May 1954, 34–36; “Techniques That Pay Off in Profit,” NADA Magazine, March 1962, 32–34; “What Is the Best Approach to Selling?” NADA Magazine, July 1969, 28–29; J. Michel White, Buying Your Next Car: How to Stick It to the Dealers Before the Dealer Can Stick It to You (Tucson, AZ: Harbinger House, 1993), 17.

15. Kenneth B. Haas, “How to Take the ‘Ice’ Out of Price” (News Release), National Automobile Dealers Association Convention, Chicago, 1 February 1959; see also John O. Munn, Automobile Selling: Letters to Salesmen (Toledo, OH: J. O. Munn Co., 1955), 90.

16. Gerry Donohue, “Good Salesmanship,” Automotive Executive, May 1987, 38.

17. John Bentley, “Salespeople: Know Thy Product,” Automotive Executive, July 1985, 38–42; Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 34.

18. Helene M. Lawson, Ladies on the Lot: Women, Car Sales, and the Pursuit of the American Dream (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), 100; Bentley, “Salespeople: Know Thy Product,” 35.

19. Ed Henry, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” Kiplinger’s Personal Finance Magazine, March 1992, 48–53.

20. Newmark, Automobile Salesmanship, 76.

21. John Reed Scott, “Mrs. Randolph’s Nerve,” Lippincott’s Magazine, December 1910, 712.

22. Art Hoffman, “Training Salespeople to Succeed,” Dealer World [Ford], September 1991, 26–27.

23. Paul H. Nystrom, Automobile Selling: A Manual for Dealers (New York: Motor, the National Magazine of Motoring, 1919), 31; Selling Chevrolets, 60.

24. Flint, “Showroom Strategy,” 18; Benjamin Cheever, “How to Sell Cars,” New Yorker, 1 May 2000, 140.

25. Chevrolet Presents [c. 1941] (embedded in Mystery Science Theatre 3000, show #505, “Magic Voyage of Sinbad,” 1993); Jack Tilles, Trader Thorne (Wilding Picture Productions for Ford Motor Company, 1949).

26. Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 18; Al Griffin, “Tell It to Them on the Phone,” NADA Magazine, August 1963, 14–18; Bury, Automobile Dealer, 14; Bernard Stengren, “Salesmen Hound GIs at Idlewild,” New York Times, 9 March 1958, 16; Salesman! A Close Look at Three Ford Professionals (Ford Video Network, 1979).

27. Hoffman, “Training Salespeople,” 27.

28. Homer Croy, “Buying a Car,” Harper’s Weekly, 6 February 1915, 139.

29. Bury, Automobile Dealer, 16; Selling Chevrolets, 72; Sam H. White, “What Makes a Good Salesman?” NADA Magazine, April 1956, 40–43; Jerry Flint, “Showroom Strategy: Price Labeling Fails to End Deceit in Auto Selling, Salesman Finds,” Wall Street Journal, 5 May 1959, 1, 18; Friedman, Birth of a Salesman, 214.

30. Stengren, “Salesmen Hound GIs.”

31. Bury, Automobile Dealer, 15; Joseph John Adamek, “A Study of Sales Training Materials and Plans with Recommendations to Improve the Training of Automobile Salesmen” (MS thesis, Northern Illinois University, 1963), 40; “A 16–Point Program for Prospectors,” NADA Magazine, August 1963, 16–17.

32. Nystrom, Automobile Selling, 34–35.

33. K. B. K., “Tricks of the Trade-in,” [letter to the editor], Consumer Reports, September 1953, 374; Groves, How to Buy Automobiles, 79; Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 39.

34. “How You Can Make Out as an Auto Salesman,” Kiplinger Magazine, April 1957, 19; Newmark, Automobile Salesmanship, 94.

35. “Untapped Customers,” Wall Street Journal, 11 April 1958, 5; Joseph Bohn, “Mystery Shoppers Rate Salespeople,” Automotive News, 30 July 1984, 14; Mary Anne Shreve, “Showroom Sleuthing,” Automotive Executive, May 1991, 24–27.

36. Robert Simison, “Softer Sell,” Wall Street Journal, 11 January 1979, 1; “Questions Answered for Dealers at Convention Clinics,” NADA Magazine, April 1950, 26, 30.

37. See, for example, “Making the Deal: Old Rules in a New Ball Game,” Consumer Reports, April 1974, 300.

38. Bury, Automobile Dealer, 213.

39. Gregory Hill, Over the Curb (Rosemead, CA: Gregory Publications, 1973), 77.

40. Joy Browne, The Used-Car Game: A Sociology of the Bargain (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1973), 51; Kevin J. McManus, The Consumer’s Edge: What the Automotive Dealer Doesn’t Want You to Know! (n.p.: 1995), 22.

41. Joseph C. Ingraham, “Automobiles: Ethics,” New York Times, 1 September 1957, 21–23; Flint, “Showroom Strategy.”

42. Ronald G. Shafer, “It’s a Deal,” Wall Street Journal, 13 June 1966, 218; Sam Crowther and Irwin Winehouse, Highway Robbery (New York: Stein and Day, 1966), 22–25.

43. Fred M. H. Gregory, “Have I Got a Deal for You,” Motor Trend, July 1976, 81; Kurt Allen Weiss, Have I Got a Deal for You! How to Buy or Lease Any Car Without Getting Run Over (Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press, 1997), 83.

44. Manager of Sales Ford Motor Company, To: Chas. Hendy Jr., 8 June 1914, Detroit, Ford Research Center, record group 509, box 2.

45. Newmark, Automobile Salesmanship, 77; see also Selling Chevrolets, 92–93.

46. Roger Rapoport, “How I Made $193.85 Selling Cars,” Atlantic Monthly, January 1970, 75–78; Joseph McElliott, “Selling Pianos,” The Bookman, September 1927, 60–65; Frank I. Dorr, Hayseed and Sawdust (Boston: Wormsted, Smith, 1934), 64; Stanley C. Hollander, “Discount Retailing: An Examination of Some Divergences from the One-Price System in American Retailing” (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1954), 23.

47. “The Care and Handling of Used Car Salesmen,” NADA Magazine, March 1960, 30–31.

48. Jack Naylon, “Point Program for Selling,” Ford Dealer Magazine, March–April, 1956, 3; for General Motors, see Adamek, “A Study of Sales Training Materials,” 52.

49. Flint, “Showroom Strategy.”

50. Richard Klein, “Full Routine System Spurs Sales and Profits,” Ford Dealer Magazine, Summer 1979.

51. Joe Car [Denny Armstrong], I’m a Legal Hold Up Man, I’m a Car Salesman (Shawnee Mission, KA: Joe Car, 1977), 39; Gary Carr, How to Outsmart the New Car Salesman (New York: Macmillan, 1987), 71; Henry Luhring, “Automobile Salesmanship at Work: ‘The Car Is Yours for Only $25 More,’” Consumer Reports, May 1950, 206–207.

52. Hector Olivas, “Dialogue with a Sales Pro,” Ford Dealer Magazine, March–April, 1969, 8–12.

53. White, “What Makes a Good Salesman?”

54. Robertson, How to Deal on an Automobile, 76; Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 8.

55. W. P. Mann, How to Get the Best Buy from Your Car Dealer: An Inside View of What to Watch for in Buying a New or Used Car (Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press, 1979), 4–5, 34–35; Darrell Parrish, The Car Buyer’s Art … How to Beat the Salesman at His Own Game (Bellflower, CA: Book Express, 1992), 178–81.

56. Groves, How to Buy Automobiles, 14–15; Mann, How to Get the Best Buy, 40, 48–49.

57. Leo Reilly, How to Outnegotiate Anyone (Even a Car Dealer!) (Holbrook, MA: Bob Adams, 1994), 60.

58. Browne, Used-Car Game, 12, 33, 68–73.

59. Car, I’m a Legal Hold Up Man, 4.

60. Chicago Automobile Trade Association, Automobile Selling by Practical Salesmen (Chicago: Chicago Automobile Trace Association, 1924), 64.

61. Jesse Rainsford Sprague, “Confessions of a Ford Dealer,” Harper’s, June 1927, 26–35, 30.

62. See, for example, Joseph P. Turner, “Selling vs. Merchandising,” NADA Magazine, August 1966, 12–13.

63. Warren Brown, “Keep the Keys and Beat the Dealer’s System,” Washington Post, 1 August 2004, G2.

64. Cheever, “How to Sell,” 140; Benjamin Cheever, “Selling Ben Cheever,” Archipelago (2001), retrieved 23/4/2006 from www.archipelago.org/vol5–3/cheever.htm; see also Paul Gray, “Nice Guys Finish First?” Time, 25 July 1994.

65. Robertson, How to Deal on an Automobile, 42.

66. Bennett, “A Charm School for Car Salesmen”; Dunk Chen, Little Known Sources for Getting the Car of Your Dreams at a Fraction of the Market Price (Medford, OR: DS Publications, 1989), 12.

67. Parrish, Car Buyer’s Art, 147; Browne, Used-Car Game, 10.

68. “Auto Dealer,” Business Week, 12 October 1957, 65–68.

69. Gary Erichson, How to Sell Automobiles (Smithtown, NY: Enlightened Sales Training, 1982), 67.

70. Car, I’m a Legal Hold Up, 11; Joseph S. Coyle, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” Money, April 1978, 98–99; Hill, Over the Curb, 18.

71. Merchandising Cars and Trucks (Washington, DC: Northwood Institute for National Automobile Dealers Association, 1967), 108; Car, I’m a Legal Hold Up Man, 41.

72. “Pencils Muffled in Coast Car Case,” New York Times, 12 May 1957, 79; Rapoport, “How I Made,” 76.

73. Coyle, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 13.

74. White, Buying Your Next Car, 72–73; Parrish, Car Buyer’s Art, 79–81.

75. Roald Dahl, Matilda (New York: Puffin Books, 1988).

76. James Reston, “Democrats in Doubt,” New York Times, 12 July 1960, 21.

77. “Franklin Used Cars” [Display Ad], New York Times, 8 December 1909, 12.

78. Ray Goldman, “How to Buy a Second Hand Car,” Illustrated World, January 1918, 742–45.

79. Frank Mitchell, How to Buy, Keep and Enjoy Your Car (New York: Arco Publishing, 1950), 6.

80. Lawrence Dietz, “Would You Buy a Used Car from This Man?” Saturday Evening Post, 24 August 1968, 56–59; Frederick J. Roth and Christopher A. Roth, “The History of Earl “Mad Man” Muntz,” Vintage American Sports Cars, 1 January 2006, www.american sportscars.com/muntz.

81. Dietz, “Would You Buy.”

82. Ibid.

83. Paul G. Hoffman and James H. Greene, Marketing Used Cars (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1929), 6.

84. Maurice Baum, Readings in Business Ethics: A Survey of the Principles and Problems of American Business (Dubuque, IA: W. C. Brown, 1951), 71.

85. Marshall Spiegel, “Used Cars: Wheeling and Dealing,” Senior Scholastic, 25 April 1968, 40.

86. “The Deals That Keep Used Cars Moving,” Business Week, 19 September 1953, 88–94; Jenny L. King, “U.C. Dealers Fight Old Problem,” Automotive News, 9 May 1983, 12.

87. John W. Allen, “Used Car Advertising and Display,” 17 February 1953, NADA Convention 1953, San Francisco, National Automobile Dealers Association, McClean, Va.

88. Dave Conrad, “Representing the Final Link to America’s Yankee Trader Tradition,” Automotive Executive, September 1979, 28; Victor Block, “NADA Backs D.C. Used Car Expose,” NADA Magazine, January 1960, 40–46.

89. Mitchell, “How to Buy,” 124.

90. Robert Weber, “I was a used car salesman,” Cartoon Closeup, New Yorker, 12 January 1987, www.cartoonbank.com.

91. Bruce McCall, “Getting Used to the Used Car Business Again,” Car and Driver, June 1977, 22–23; see also Browne, Used-Car Game, 26–31.

92. William Hamilton, “The Customer,” NADA Convention 1951, National Automobile Dealers Association, McClean, Va.; “Dramatic Skit Summary, Merchandising,” NADA Magazine, February 1952, 68.

93. Hamilton, “The Customer”; “Dramatic Skit Summary, Merchandising,” 68; Albert E. Norman, NADA Convention and Exhibition, Publicity, vol. 1, 31, Washington, DC, January 1956, [Press Release], National Automobile Dealers Association, Mc-Clean, Va.

94. Lois Cohorst, High Mileage: Behind Every Successful Car Dealer Is a Woman With Jumper Cables and a Tow Rope (Hillsboro, KS: Hearth Publishing, 1995), 90; Foster R. Gaylord, Automotive Industry—a Macro View (n.p.: Northwood Institute; National Automobile Dealers Association; American Truck Dealers, 1984), 201; Browne, Used-Car Game, 40–41.

95. W. H. “Duke” Wilcox, “Automotive Merchandising in the Year 1999,” Automotive Executive, October 1979, 66–68.

96. Weiss, “Have I Got a Deal,” 77; Wolfington, “The Customer, Thinking Through”; “Hit ’Em Where We Live,” Road and Track, November 1985, 26; Carol A. Leonard, “Prostitution and Changing Social Norms in America” (Ph.D. diss., Syracuse University, 1979); Joan Mooney, “Satisfaction Guaranteed,” Automotive Executive, October 1987, 26–33. For a more positive spin, see Joan Mooney, “Getting Better All the Time,” Automotive Executive, June 1999.

97. Erichson, How to Sell Automobiles, 68.

98. Associated Press, “Introducing the Robot Car Dealer,” CNN.Com/Technology, 11 December 2002, retrieved 11/12/02 from www.cnn.com/2002/tech/ptech/12/11/japan.robot.ap/.

99. S. E. Madeline, “Not a Price Ad in Five Years—and Sales Have Tripled,” November–December 1965, Ford Dealer Magazine; “Florida Auto Dealer Ads Aim to Upgrade Salesman’s Image,” Advertising Age, 8 January 1968, 64.

100. National Automobile Dealers Association, Convention and Exhibition, Publicity, vol. 1, 1955, [Press Release], Chicago, NADA, McClean, Va.

101. “Car Sellers Shun Meeting on Ethics,” New York Times, 23 June 1961, 14; “Auto Dealers to Get Ethics Code Today in ‘House Cleaning,’” New York Times, 22 June 1961, 33.

102. Daniel L. Lionel, “8–Page Section Rides on Auto Dealer Code,” Editor and Publisher, 24 March 1962, 38; see also Richard Munro, How to Sell Cars: A Complete Manual on Selling New and Used Cars and Trucks (Toronto: General Publishing Co., 1962), 104–105.

103. William E. Hancock, “The Case for Self-Regulation,” Cars and Trucks, October 1971, 42–45.

104. Leslie Maria, “Selling Certification,” Automotive Executive, January 1995, 20–21.

105. Ibid., 20.

106. For example, see Herman Melville, “The Lightening-Rod Man,” in The Piazza Tales (London: Constable, 1923).

107. Coyle, Confessions, 5.

108. Bury, Automobile Dealer, 161.

109. Car, I’m a Legal Hold Up, 37–38.

110. Rapoport, “How I Made,” 75.

111. Groves, How to Buy Automobiles, 117. For experimental confirmation of this, see Deborah Larrance et al., “Competence and Incompetence: Assymetric Responses to Women and Men on a Sex-Linked Task,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 5, no. 3 (1979).

112. Bury, Automobile Dealer, 156–57.

113. Munro, “How to Sell,” 154–58.

114. Manuel G. Velasquez, Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1982), 235–39.

115. Catherine Saint Louis, “What They Were Thinking,” New York Times Magazine, 27 August 2000, 26.

116. Marc H. Stertz, “Odds & Ends,” Automotive Executive, September 1995, 3.

117. Browne, Used-Car Game, 35; Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 21.

118. Donohue, “Good Salesmanship,” 37–38.

119. Browne, Used-Car Game, 19, 54; Jeff Gaydos, “How to Curb Sales Staff Turnover,” Dealer World [Ford], November–December 1991, 12–13; Lawson, Ladies on the Lot, 9, 23; James T. Milord and Raymond P. Perry, “Traits and Performance of Automobile Salesmen,” Journal of Social Psychology 103 (1977): 163–64.

120. Susan Biddle Jaffe, “Creating Your Own Stellar Sellers,” Automotive Executive, April 1989, 26–28; Gaydos, “How to Curb”; Ivy L. Gilbert, “Service Begets Sales: An Investigation into the Relationship of Automotive Dealership Customer Service Satisfaction with Sales Success” (Ph.D. diss., Western Michigan University, 1986), 55.

121. Browne, Ladies on the Lot, 36–39, 40–41.

122. “On Horse Dealing,” The Athenaeum (Boston), 1 August 1825, 363.

123. Bury, Automobile Dealer, 310; Bartley, “How to Buy,” 118–19; Browne, Used-Car Game, 114–21; Hill, Over the Curb, 101–102; Remar Sutton, Don’t Get Taken Every Time: The Insider’s Guide to Buying Your Next Car (New York: Viking, 1982, 2001), 395–98; Robertson, How to Deal on an Automobile, 11–16; Parrish, Car Buyer’s Art, 150–54.

124. Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 6.

125. Ibid., 21.

SEVEN: Bargaining and Gender

1. Dennis A. Williams, “Making the Best Deal for New Wheels,” Black Enterprise, November 1983, 82.

2. John H. Eagal, “The Reminiscences of Mr. John H. Eagal Sr.,” Ford Research Center, record group 65, box 17, July 1953.

3. “Advice to the First Car Pest,” Puck, 2 January 1915, 19.

4. Allen F. Jung, “Price Variations Among Automobile Dealers in Chicago, Illinois,” Journal of Business 32, no. 4 (October 1959): 315–26; idem, “Price Variations Among Automobile Dealers in Metropolitan Chicago,” Journal of Business 33 (January 1960): 31–43; E. Scott Maynes, “Variations in Automobile Prices: Lessons for Consumers,” Journal of Business-University of Chicago 1962, 201–204; “The Voice of the Consumer,” NADA Magazine, September 1968, 20–24; Robert B. Cialdini, Leonard Bickman, and John T. Cacioppo, “An Example of Consumeristic Social Psychology: Bargaining Tough in the New Car Showroom,” Journal of Applied Sociology 9, no. 2 (1979): 115–26; David H. Furse, Girish N. Punj, and David W. Stewart, “A Typology of Individual Search Strategies Among Purchasers of New Automobiles,” Journal of Consumer Research, March 1984, 417–31; Christina J. Taylor and Sharon M. Dawid, “Bargaining for a New Car: The Knowledgeable Versus the Naive Consumer,” Psychological Reports, August 1986, 284–86.

5. “Ford Sales Manual,” 1926, Ford Research Center, record group 175.

6. “Direct Selling Now Challenges Dealer’s Place in Motor Industry,” Business Week, 9 September 1931, 13–14.

7. Charles Coolidge Parlin and Fred Bremier, The Passenger Car Industry: Report of a Survey (Philadelphia: Curtis Publishing Company, 1932), 64.

8. Robert Simison, “Softer Sell,” Wall Street Journal (New York), 11 January 1979, 29.

9. Merchandising Cars and Trucks (Washington, DC: Northwood Institute for National Automobile Dealers Association, 1967), 83; Leo Reilly, How to Outnegotiate Anyone (Even a Car Dealer!) (Holbrook, Mass.: Bob Adams, 1994), 55-56.

10. Stephen J. Miller, “The Social Base of Sales Behavior,” Social Problems 12, no. 1 (Summer 1964): 20-22; Merchandising Cars and Trucks, 83; Joy Browne, The Used-Car Game: A Sociology of the Bargain (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1973), 107, 111; Chandler Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 2004, part 8: parting shots, retrieved 12/9/2004 from www.edmunds.com/advice/buying/articles.

11. Theodore H. Smith, The Marketing of Used Automobiles (Columbus, OH: Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University, 1941), 113; see also Senate Automobile Marketing Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Price Labeling, 85 Cong., 2 sess., 21–24 April 1958, 59.

12. Richard S. Tedlow, New and Improved: The Story of Mass Marketing in America (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996), 158; see also “How to Buy a New Car,” House and Garden, September 1959, 133.

13. Senate Automobile Marketing Subcommittee, Automobile Price Labeling, 3.

14. Franklin B. Evans, “Correlates of Automobile Shopping Behavior,” Journal of Marketing, October 1962, 75.

15. Jim Bright, “Success is a Four-Letter Word,” Dealer World [Ford], June 1985, 8–9; Gregory Hill, Over the Curb (Rosemead, CA: Gregory Publications, 1973), 28.

16. Michael Lamm, “The Used Car: Games Salesmen Play,” Motor Trend, September 1975, 29.

17. Gary Carr, How to Outsmart the New Car Salesman (New York: Macmillan, 1987) 75; Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 5.

18. Michael Royce, Beat the Car Salesman (Boca Raton, FL: American Media Mini Mags, 2002).

19. Carr, How to Outsmart, 96; “How to Buy a New Car and Sell Your Old One,” Motor Trend, May 1975, 45; Herb Adams, “The Tenderfoot’s New Car Buying Guide,” Motor Trend, January 1980, 118–20.

20. Carl Cahill, “Listen, You Salesmen/Listen, Mr. Cahill,” NADA Magazine, February 1965, 48; see also James B. Treece, “Dealing With a Car Dealer Shouldn’t Be So Demeaning,” Business Week, 12 June 1989, 83.

21. Helen Kahn, “Car Buyers Want More Price Data, Survey Finds,” Automotive News, 5 May 1986, 26.

22. Brenda M. Eisenhauer, “Haggle Over Car Prices? Yes, Please,” American Demographics, April 1995, 16–18.

23. Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 20.

24. “Hit ’Em Where We Live,” 26.

25. Grace Lichtenstein, “Auto Dealers Bitterly Complain Over ‘Embezzling Consumers,’” New York Times, 11 September 1971, 53.

26. Senate Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Marketing Practices, Part 1, 84 Cong., 2 sess., January–March 1956, 11.

27. “Complaints,” Public Relations, Ford Division, 1950–1957, Ford Research Center, record group 669, box 1. For findings of positive customer reactions, see Geoff Sundstrom and Jesse Snyder, “Studies Clash on Sales Competence,” Automotive News, 19 January 1987, 3; “New Car Buyers Sold by Ads, Dearly Love Their Dealers, Ford Study Shows,” Advertising Age, 13 October 1958; Glenn Steven Lee, “A Customer Satisfaction Automobile Survey” (MA thesis, California State University, Long Beach, 1990), 31.

28. Dayr Reis, Leticia Pena, and Paulo A. Lopes, “Customer Satisfaction: The Historical Perspective,” Management Decision 41, no. 2 (2003): 195–98.

29. Susan Strasser, Satisfaction Guaranteed: The Making of the American Mass Market (New York: Pantheon Books, 1989); Mary Anne Shreve, “CSI—Pie in the Sky,” Automotive Executive, October 1998, 26–27.

30. “Danger for the Automobile Buyer” [Display Ad], New York Times, 20 April 1917, 22.

31. Don Valentine, “What Sold Me!” NADA Magazine, November 1953, 56–57.

32. Senate Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Automobile Marketing Practices, 84 Cong., 2 sess., Jan., Feb., Mar. 1956, 28-29.

33. C. E. Groves, How to Buy Automobiles (New York: Information Incorporated, 1970), 127-28; J. M. H., “Tips for the New-Car Buyer,” Dun’s Review, September 1974, 105-15; Darrell Parrish, The Car Buyer’s Art: How to Beat the Salesman at His Own Game (Bellflower, CA: Book Express, 1992), 52.

34. Jung, “Price Variations,” 1959; Jung, “Price Variations,” 1960; Allen F. Jung, “Finding a Better Deal on a New Car,” Business Horizons, March–April 1983, 34–36.

35. Lizabeth Cohen, “Encountering Mass Culture at the Grassroots: The Experience of Chicago Workers in the 1920s,” American Quarterly 41, no. 1 (1989): 23.

36. Ian Ayres and Peter Siegelman, “Race and Gender Discrimination in Bargaining for a New Car,” American Economic Review 85, no. 3 (1995): 318.

37. Ayres and Siegelman, “Race and Gender”; William E. Schimidt, “White Men Get Better Deals on Cars, Study Finds,” New York Times Magazine, 13 December 1990, 26; see also Gordon L. Wise, “Differential Pricing and Treatment by New-Car Salesmen: The Effect of the Prospect’s Race, Sex, and Dress,” Journal of Business 47 (April 1974); Gordon L. Wise, Myron K. Cox, and Charles Floto, “Sex and Race Discrimination in the New-Car Showroom: A Fact or Myth?” Journal of Consumer Affairs (Winter 1977): 107–13; Kenneth McNeil et al., “Market Discrimination Against the Poor and the Impact of Consumer Disclosure Laws: The Used Car Industry,” Law and Society Review 13, no. 3 (Spring 1979): 695–720. For discrimination against poor people, see Avelardo Valdez, “Chicano Used-Car Dealers: A Social World in Microcosm,” Urban Life 13, no. 2–3 (October 1984); Fred C. Akers, “Negro and White Automobile-Buying Behavior: New Evidence,” Journal of Marketing Research (August 1968): 283–89.

38. Diana B. Henriques, “Review of Nissan Car Loans Finds That Blacks Pay More,” New York Times, 4 July 2001, 1.

39. Groves, How to Buy Automobiles, 91.

40. “How to Shop for a New Car,” Consumer Reports, May 1955, 222–29.

41. Albert Q. Maisel, “The Art of Buying a New Car,” Reader’s Digest, November 1957, 48–51.

42. Martin H. Bury, The Automobile Dealer (Philadelphia: Philpenn Publishing, 1958), 17.

43. Watson Fenimore, “6 Ways to Save Money Buying a New Car,” Popular Science, October 1960, 86; see also “Smart Way to Buy a Car,” Changing Times, December 1962, 22; Groves, How to Buy Automobiles.

44. “Prices, a Starting Point for Bargaining,” Consumer Reports, April 1963, 162.

45. “The Art of Buying a New Car,” Consumer Reports, April 1969, 176.

46. “Dealing with the Dealer,” Consumer Reports, April 1973, 198–202; “Dealing with the Dealer, 1975: After the Carnival’s Over,” Consumer Reports, April 1975, 220–21.

47. “Deals on Wheels: You Can Drive a Hard Bargain in a Soft Economy,” Consumer Reports, April 2002, 18–21.

48. Joe Car [Denny Armstrong], I’m a Legal Hold Up Man, I’m a Car Salesman (Shawnee Mission, KA: Joe Car, 1977); Joseph S. Coyle, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” Money, April 1978, 98-99.

49. Philip F. Tennyson, Getting Screwed: A Satire of Car Dealer Manipulation (Portland, OR: Immortality Incorporated, 1978).

50. L. J. Brum, How to Beat the Car Dealer at His Own Game: Buying a New or Used Car (San Jose, CA: B-M Consumer Publications, 1981), 23.

51. Parrish, Car Buyer’s Art; J. Michel White, Buying Your Next Car: How to Stick It to the Dealer Before the Dealer Can Stick It to You (Tucson, AZ: Harbinger House, 1993); “Steal a Car,” Men’s Health, October 1999, 61.

52. For example, see Mike Willingham, The New Car Dealer’s Secret Agenda: An Insider’s View of Dealer Strategies, Salesman’s Tactics, the Finance Office Tricks and Ploys, and How You Can Be In Charge of Negotiations (Melbourne, FL: National Negotiating Services, 1992); White, Buying Your Next Car; Parrish, The Car Buyer’s Art; Sal Fariello, The People’s Car Book: The One Essential Handbook for People Who Don’t Trust Mechanics, Car Salesmen, or Car Manufacturers (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993); Kevin J. McManus, The Consumer’s Edge: What the Automotive Dealer Doesn’t Want You to Know! (np: 1995).

53. Remar Sutton, Don’t Get Taken Every Time: The Insider’s Guide to Buying Your Next Car (New York: Viking, 1982, 2001).

54. Royce, Beat the Car.

55. Jung, “Price Variations,” 1959, 1960; Fenimore, “6 Ways”; “Smart Way”; Merle E. Dowd, “How to Bargain,” Popular Mechanics, November 1968, 77; Groves, How to Buy Automobiles, 1, 99; Peter Frey, “Can You Get a Deal?” Motor Trend, September 1978, 48–49; Adams, “Tenderfoot’s,” 118; Sandra Hinson, “Buying a Car? Ex-Dealer Remar Sutton Tells How Not to Get Taken for a Ride,” People, 6 June 1983, 91–92; Willing-ham, Dealer Strategies, 12, 21; McManus, Consumer’s Edge, 20–21; Kurt Allen Weiss, Have I Got a Deal for You! How to Buy or Lease any Car Without Getting Run Over (Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press, 1997).

56. Reilly, How to Outnegotiate Anyone.

57. Duane L. Gregg, “How to Get the Best Deal on Your Next New Car,” Better Homes and Gardens, September 1971, 30; Paula Sullivan, “Getting a Good Deal on a New Car,” Essence, November 1982, 120; Jerry Edgerton, “Driving a Hard Bargain,” Money, January 1982, 95–96; Ken Zino, “The Right Way to Buy a Car,” Home Mechanix, September 1989, 29–31; Mel Bloom, “Tales Out of Car-Salesman School,” Readers Digest, January 1990, 105–108; Jeff Guitierrez, “Insider’s Car-Buying Tips,” Consumers Digest, January–February 1994, 71–73.

58. “Automobiles at Your Own Prices” [Display Ad], New York Times, 20 February 1910, 5.

59. Jenny L. King, “Buyers Called Brainwashed, Want New Car Giveaways,” Automotive News, 8 September 1980, 20–21; Jenny L. King, “Curbside Transactions Grow in Lusty Used Car Market,” Automotive News, 7 September 1981, 46.

60. “F. Turner Automobile Broker” [Display Ad], New York Times, 29 November 1908, 3.

61. “Any Make New Automobile” [Classified Ad], New York Times, 3 May 1914, 5.

62. “Auto Broker Seized on Larceny Charge,” New York Times, 6 March 1947, 26.

63. “Trust Suit Filed Against Nissan for Alleged Pricing Conspiracy,” New York Times, 1 July 1972, 27; Jake Kelderman, “Court Bans Auto Brokers in Maryland,” Automotive News, 24 December 1984, 7.

64. “The Cheapest Way to Buy a Car,” Good Housekeeping, May 1981, 260; Julie Candler, “New Car Buying—Everything You Need to Know,” Ms., November 1984, 32; Melinda Grenier Guiles, “Car Buying Services Can Save Money Especially for Those Who Hate Haggling,” Wall Street Journal, 23 April 1985, 33; “Something New: Car Buyer for Hire,” Nation’s Business, December 1982, 78–79.

65. Douglas Lavin and Krystal Miller, “Goodby to Haggling: Savvy Customers Are Buying Their Cars Like Refrigerators,” Wall Street Journal, 20 August 1993, 1.

66. Charles A. Jaffe, “Joining the Club,” Automotive Executive, February 1993, 26–28.

67. Joseph J. Corn, “Work and Vehicles: A Comment and Note,” in Martin Wachs and Margaret Crawford, eds., The Car and the City: The Automobile and the Built Environment (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1992), 25.

68. John Keats, The Insolent Chariots (Greenwich, CT: Fawcett Publications, 1958), 9–11.

69. Quoted in Carroll Pursell, “The Construction of Masculinity and Technology,” Svenska National Kommittaen Feor Teknikhistoria 11 (1993): 208.

70. Robert Slofs, “Buying an Automobile,” Outing, December 1909, 345.

71. Gordon Grant, “The New Ritual,” Puck, 16 October 1912, 7.

72. Paul H. Nystrom, Automobile Selling: A Manual for Dealers (New York: Motor, the National Magazine of Motoring, 1919), 77.

73. John Reed Scott, “Mrs. Randolph’s Nerve,” Lippincott’s Magazine, December 1910, 708–18.

74. Louise Closser Hale, A Motor Car Divorce (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1906), 158.

75. “Advice to the First Car Pest,” Puck, 2 January 1915, 19.”

76. Virginia Scharff, “Gender, Electricity, and Automobility,” in The Car and the City, ed. Wachs and Crawford, 84–85; see also Cindy Donatelli, “Driving the Suburbs: Mini-vans, Gender, and Family Values,” Material History Review 54 (Fall 2001).

77. Paula D. Hodges, “Ford’s Designs on Women,” Automotive Industries, November 1981, 43.

78. Day Allen Willey, “Who Can Afford an Automobile?” Good Housekeeping, May 1909, 476.

79. Kevin F. McCrohan and Jay M. Finkelman, “Social Character and the New Automobile Industry,” California Management Review (Fall 1981): 58–67.

80. Ken Gross, “The Name Game,” Automotive Executive, February 1994, 40–43.

81. “Psychology of a Sale,” Current Opinion, February 1920, 213.

82. “The Used Car Shopper: He Leaves Wife at Home, and Generally Doesn’t Haggle,” Business Week, 19 December 1959, 79.

83. C. L. Edholm, “Selling the Second-Hand Car,” Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine, August 1914, 211–14.

84. Gregory Hill, Over the Curb (Rosemead, CA: Gregory Publications, 1973), 36.

85. Helene M. Lawson, “Service Values–Profit Goals: The Divided Selves of Car Sales Women” (Ph.D. diss., Loyola University of Chicago, 1991), 6.

86. Benjamin Cheever, “How to Sell Cars,” New Yorker, 1 May 2000, 136-55.

87. Ted Orme, “Top Guns,” Automotive Executive, April 1989, 19; see also Ed Henry, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” Kiplinger’s Personal Finance Magazine, March 1992, 48–53.

88. Parrish, Car Buyer’s Art, 2–3.

89. Hill, Over the Curb, 80.

90. Marc Baldwin, “Discourse of the Deal: The Car Salesman as Symbol,” in Dominant Symbols in Popular Culture, ed. Ray B. Browne, Marshall W. Fishwick, and Kevin O. Browne (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University, 1990), 167.

91. Browne, Used-Car Game, 49, 60.

92. Hale, A Motor Car Divorce, 117.

93. “The Winton Sixteen-Six” [Display Ad], New York Times, 3 November 1907, 11.

94. “We Want You to See This Latest Chalmers Model” [Display Ad], New York Times, 31 March 1911, 12.

95. “Automobile Training: A Pacific Coast School of Instruction,” Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, March 1909, 28.

96. Curt McConnell, A Reliable Car and a Woman Who Knows It: The First Coast-to-Coast Auto Trips by Women, 1899–1916 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000).

97. Martin Wachs, “Men, Women and Wheels: The Historical Basis of Gender Differences in Travel Patterns,” in The Changing Population: Impacts of Working Women and the Aging on Travel Patterns and Transportation, 66th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1987, 7.

98. Virginia Scharff, Taking the Wheel: Women and the Coming of the Motor Age (New York: Free Press, 1991); Georgine Clarsen, “The Dainty Toe and the Brawny Male Arm: Conceptions of Bodies and Power in Automobile Technology,” Australian Feminist Studies 15, no. 32 (2000): 153–63.

99. Jacob H. Newmark, Automobile Salesmanship (Detroit, MI: Automobile Publishing Co., 1915), 103–204; see also Eric Dregni and Karl Hagstrom Miller, Ads That Put America on Wheels (Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1996), 103.

100. “Announcing Series Eight Cole” [Display Ad], New York Times, 23 September 1912, 9.

101. “Look for the Man in the Moon Car” [Display Ad], New York Times, 14 May 1916, 4; James H. Collins, “Putting the Motor on the Counter,” McClure’s, October 1916, 21; Charles L. Sanford, “Woman’s Place in American Car Culture,” in The Automobile and American Culture, ed. David L. Lewis and Laurence Goldstein (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1983), 137–51.

102. Charles Coolidge Parlin and Fred Bremier, The Passenger Car Industry: Report of a Survey (Philadelphia: Curtis Publishing Company, 1932), 90.

103. Homer McKee, “What Salesmanship Means,” Harper’s Weekly, 11 January 1913, 15.

104. George H. Brown, “The Automobile Buying Decision within the Family,” in Nelson N. Foote, ed., Household Decision-Making (New York: New York University Press, 1961), 193–99; Lloyd Wendt and Herman Kogan, Give the Lady What She Wants: The Story of Marshall Field & Company (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1952), 276.

105. Jacob H. Newmark, Automobile Salesmanship (Detroit, MI: Automobile Publishing Co., 1915), 73; James H. Collins, “Putting the Motor on the Counter,” McClure’s, October 1916, 21.

106. Collins, “Putting the Motor on the Counter,” 23; Ford Sales Manual, 1926, Ford Research Center, record group 175.

107. Selling Chevrolets: A Book of Information for Chevrolet Retail Salesmen (Detroit, MI: Chevrolet Motor Co., 1930), 85, 155; see also Walter A. Friedman, Birth of a Salesman: The Transformation of Selling in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 222.

108. Sam E. Polson, “Dress Right! for Sales Success,” Cars and Trucks, May 1979, 22–23; Gary James, “Ford Targets Women’s Market,” Automotive Executive, July 1985, 41–42; George P. Blumberg, “To Sell a Car That Women Love, It Helps If Women Sell It,” New York Times, 26 October 2005, 12; Newmark, Automobile Salesmanship, 74, 80; How to Run a Retail Automobile Business at a Profit (Chicago: A. W. Shaw Co., 1917), 43; Nystrom, Automobile Selling, 70–71; Helen Bruno, “Why the Emphasis on Women,” NADA Magazine, July 1955, 46; Sam H. White, “What Makes a Good Salesman?” NADA Magazine, April 1956, 41.

109. Ford Sales Manual, 41.

110. Alexander Johnston, “A Check List for Him Who Buys,” Country Life, May 1917, 108.

111. “Oh, of Course!” [Cartoon], Puck, 2 January 1915, 10.

112. Bruno, “Why The Emphasis on Women.”

113. Charlotte Huber, “Wanna Buy a Car, Lady?” Retail Executive, 19 July 1939, 13.

114. Sherman Chatzky, “Protest with Your Feet,” Money, February 1999, 190.

115. Patricia Hinsberg, “DOT Tackles Showroom Chauvinism,” Automotive News, 9 October 1978, 49; “Women Important to Car Business,” Automotive News, 10 July 1978, 29.

116. Steve Huntley, “Selling Cars: A Vanishing American Art,” U.S. News & World Report, 29 August 1983, 59; Joan Mooney, “Dealers Tune Approach to Meet Women’s Market,” Automotive Executive, August 1986, 71–75; Marc H. Stertz, “I’ve Got News for You,” Automotive Executive, April 1991, 4; Mary Anne Shreve, “It’s a Woman’s World,” Automotive Executive, November 1993, 18–20.

117. Marc H. Stertz, “Media Meanderings,” Automotive Executive, August 1996, 2.

118. Patience Eden, “Business of Buying a Car,” Country Life, September 1930, 50.

119. Loren Dunton, “How to Sell (Cars) to Women,” Ford Dealer Magazine, May–June, 1966, 35–41; Nowland and Company, “Automobile Bootlegging: Pilot Study of Consumer Motives,” ca. 1956, Ford Research Center, record group 695, box 6.

120. Paula Ganzi Licata, “She’s Not What Dealers Bargain For,” Newsday (New York), 13 October 2003, k: 81.

121. Louis J. Haugh, “Auto Promo Efforts to Women Not Carried to Dealer Level,” Advertising Age, 23 January 1978, 56.

122. “More Women Buy Their Own Cars,” Wall Street Journal, 18 June 1978, 1.

123. David W. Harless and George E. Hoffer, “Do Women Pay More for New Vehicles? Evidence from Transaction Price Data,” American Economic Review 92, no. 1 (March 2002): 270–79.

124. Denise McCluggage, “How to Buy a Used Car,” American Home, April 1971, 52–58; “Car Buying Without Fear,” U.S. News and World Report, 12 October 1987, 76.

125. Meg Greenfield, “Nightfight with the Nicest Guy in Town,” The Reporter, 14 July 1966, 35–37; Mike Knepper, “How to Get the Best New Car Deal,” Better Homes and Gardens, May 1986, 91; Amy Lumet, “What’s the Deal?” Seventeen, October 1993, 80; Laura Flynn McCarthy, “How to Buy a Used Car,” Seventeen, May 1987, 90.

126. “Women Important to Car Business,” Automotive News, 10 July 1978.

127. Gerald D. Bell, “Self-Confidence and Persuasion in Car Buying,” Journal of Marketing Research, February 1967, 6–52.

128. Carr, How to Outsmart, 22; Parrish, Car Buyer’s Art, 20.

129. “Women Have Become Car-Buying Force,” American International Automobile Dealers, 6 June 2006, Detroit News, retrieved 21/06/2004 from www.aiada.org/id=42458.

130. “Survey Finds 77 Percent of Women Car Buyers Continue to Bring Man Along to Dealership,” The Auto Channel, 1 June 2006, retrieved 21/7/2006 from www.theauto channel.com/news/2006/06/01/009311.

131. Helene M. Lawson, “Attacking Nicely: Care Saleswomen Adapt to an Incompatible Role,” Sociological Viewpoints 10 (Fall 1994): 7.

132. Laurel Leff, “Rough Tough Males Who Sell Autos Fall for Feminine Touch,” Wall Street Journal, 5 August 1977, 1.

133. For an alternative view, see S. Vernon Fuller, “Personal Difficulties Experienced by Automobile Sales Persons” (Ph.D. diss., Colorado State Teachers College, 1932), 4.

134. Margaret Jacques, “From Music to Motors,” Everybody’s Magazine, September 1914, 118.

135. Ginny Painter, “I Was Born Talking: Lois Koontz Nypl on Selling Cars,” Gold-enseal (Summer 2003): 45–49.

136. “Women Invade the Automobile Sales Room,” Wall Street Journal, 6 November 1973, 1.

137. “Big Auto Agency Invites the Ladies to Make a Career of Selling His Wares,” Business Week, 20 April 1957, 83; William D. Smith, “Saleswomen Can Boost Profits,” NADA Magazine, July 1961, 66–67; John A. Russell, “No-Showroom Dealership Ranks as a Top Saab Outlet,” Automotive News, 24 October 1977, 32.

138. Helene M. Lawson, Ladies on the Lot: Women, Car Sales, and the Pursuit of the American Dream (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), 2; Mary Connelly, “From Vehicle Design to Retail, Ford Wants to Be Female Friendly,” Automotive News, 17 March 1997, 3; Maureen McDonald, “Spreading the Word on Selling to and by Women,” Automotive News, 8 February 1988, 54.

139. John Bentley, “Salespeople: Know Thy Product,” July 1985, 39, 41; Raymond Serafin, “Special Showroom Deals in Different Attitudes,” Advertising Age, 15 September 1986, 16; Patricia Kelsey, “Distaff Staff,” Automotive News, 18 August 1986, E4; Lawson, Ladies on the Lot, 73–75.

140. Bob Girling, “Where “Fair” Rates Excellent,” Dealer World [Ford], November–December 1986, 12–13; Lawson, “Attacking Nicely.”

EPILOGUE: Still Horse Trading in the Internet Age

1. “Facts for Motor Car Buyers” [Display Ad], New York Times, 1 October 1916, 12.

2. Doron P. Levin, “Car Buyers Caught in the Middle of GM’s Battle with Discounters,” Wall Street Journal, 21 June 1985, 29; Marc H. Stertz, “Margins Ain’t Marginal,” Automotive Executive, September 1994, 2.

3. “Everything Goes in Autos—Almost,” Business Week, 29 March 1958, 26.

4. Kurt Allen Weiss, Have I Got a Deal for You! How to Buy or Lease any Car Without Getting Run Over (Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press, 1997), 81–82.

5. Ann Arnott, “The Really Shrewd Way to Buy a Car,” McCall’s, June 1989, 116.

6. Helene M. Lawson, Ladies on the Lot: Women, Car Sales, and the Pursuit of the American Dream (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), 61–63.

7. Marc H. Stertz, “Divine Right,” Automotive Executive, January 1994.

8. Ronald G. Shafer, “It’s a Deal,” Wall Street Journal, 13 June 1966, 1.

9. “Prices, a Starting Point for Bargaining,” Consumer Reports, April 1963, 162–63; Merle E. Dowd, “How to Bargain,” Popular Mechanics, November 1968, 76–81; D. L. Gregg, “How to Get the Most from Your Car at Trade-in Time,” Better Homes and Gardens, September 1970, 12; “How to Buy a New Car and Sell Your Old One,” Motor Trend, May 1975, 44; Douglas M. Lidster, “Buying a New Car? Here’s How to Get the Best Deal,” Better Homes and Gardens, September 1976, 39; “How to Drive a Hard Bargain Buying a New Car,” Business Week, 26 January 1981, 121–22.

10. “Its Print Efforts Rejected, Car/Puter Turns to TV, Radio,” Advertising Age, 12 June 1972, 12; Pat Fenton, “How to Buy a New Car Without Feeling You Bought the Brooklyn Bridge,” Retirement Living, March 1973, 58; Robert J. Cole, “Personal Finance,” New York Times, 29 October 1973, 55.

11. “Car Buyers Are Offered List of Dealer Prices,” Wall Street Journal, 31 March 1983, 4.

12. Gerry Donohue, “Good Salesmanship,” Automotive Executive, May 1987, 33–38; Linda Marsa, “Wheeling and Dealing: Savvy Shoppers Are Spending Less for Their New Cars,” Omni, June 1994, 18.

13. “A Machine That Sells Automobiles,” Business Week, 17 April 1954, 62.

14. “Would You Buy a Car from This Computer?” Business Week, 17 December 1984, 94.

15. Arthur Flax, “Net Results,” Automotive Executive, October 1995, 18–19.

16. Ed Henry, “The Virtual Car Buyer,” Kiplinger’s Personal Finance Magazine, September 1995, 145–50.

17. Paul Solman, “Virtual Showroom,” Online Focus/Online NewsHour, 29 December 1997, PBS, retrieved 24/6/2006 from www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/cyberspace/july-dec97/cars.

18. Robert L. Simison, “Auto Dealers Drop Their Old Tactics to Fight New Rivals,” Wall Street Journal, 12 February 1996, 2.

19. Alex Taylor, “How to Buy a Car on the Internet and Other New Ways to Make the Second Biggest Purchase of a Lifetime,” Fortune, 4 March 1996, 165; see also John Greenwald, “Buying a Car Without the Old Hassles,” Time, 18 March 1996.

20. For example, see Michelle Slatalla, “Cruising the Great Car Lot of the Web,” New York Times, 27 July 2006, 6.

21. James A. Willingham, “Internetworking,” Automotive Executive, December 1999, 9; Mary Anne Shreve, “From Retail to e-Tail,” Automotive Executive, December 1999, 28–29.

22. Saul Hansell, “G.M. Proposes an Online Site for Car Sales,” New York Times, 12 August 2000, 1.

23. Amy Dunkin, “Buying a Car? Take a Spin on the Net,” Business Week, 28 July 1997, 106–107.

24. Helen Kahn, “Mastering the Web,” Automotive Executive, February 1999, 25; “Selling to ‘Road Scholars,’” Automotive Executive, November 1998, 33.

25. Larry Armstrong, “Downloading Their Dream Cars,” Business Week, 9 March 1998, 93–94; Matt Nauman, “Ford, Dealers Will Go Online,” San Jose Mercury News, 26 August 2000, C1.

26. Mary Anne Shreve, “Third-Party Problems,” AutoExec, December 2000, 34–37.

27. Shreve, “Third-Party Problems.”

28. Solman, “Virtual Showroom.”

29. David Stipp and Henry Goldblatt, “The Birth of Digital Commerce,” Fortune, 9 December 1996, 159–64; Edward O. Welles, “Burning Down the House,” Inc., August 1997, 66–72.

30. Welles, “Burning Down the House”; see also Frank S. Washington, “Consumers in Command with Internet,” Automotive News, 19 January 1998.

31. Laurie Freeman, “Auto-by-Tel,” Advertising Age, 26 June 1998, 16; Welles, “Burning Down the House”; Steve Kichen, “Cruising the Internet,” Forbes, 24 March 1997, 198–99.

32. Edward Harris, “Web Car Shopping Puts Buyers in Driver’s Seat,” Wall Street Journal, 15 April 1999, 10.

33. Fara Warner, “Racing for Slice of a $350–Billion Pie,” Wall Street Journal, 24 January 2000, 1; idem, “Car Race in Cyberspace,” Wall Street Journal, 18 February 1999, 1; Ripley Hotch, “Netting Rewards,” Automotive Executive, October 1999, 22–24.

34. Shreve, “Third-Party Problems”; David F. Hyatt, Franchise Laws in the Age of the Internet (McClean, VA: National Automobile Dealers Association, 2001); Mary Anne Shreve, “Net Gain,” AutoExec, April 2001, 30–33; Tara Baukus Mello, “10 Tips to Igniting Online Sales,” AutoExec, July 2002, 24–29.

35. Eric Young, “Who’s in the Driver’s Seat?” Newsweek, 19 March 2001, 62.

36. Shreve, “Third-Party Problems”; Keith Naughton and Joan Raymond, “Click Here for a New Sedan! (Not Yet, Alas),” Newsweek, 11 November 2002, 10–12.

37. Jeff Bennett, “Dealerships Still Key for Online Car Shopping,” San Jose Mercury News, 23 October 2000, E12; Matt Nauman, “Automakers, Dealers See Web Car-Buying Sites in Retreat,” San Jose Mercury News, 1 December 2000, c: 4; Bob Tedeschi, “Online Sites Grow up as Buyers and Sellers Become Beneficiaries,” New York Times, 26 October 2005, 13.

38. Catherine Greenman, “Female Car Buyers Turn to Low-Key Web,” San Jose Mercury News, 10 January 2001, business: 3; Florian Zettelmeyer, Fiona Scott Morton, and Jorge Silva-Risso, “How the Internet Lowers Prices: Evidence from Matched Survey and Automobile Transaction Data,” Journal of Marketing Research 43 (May 2006): 168–81.

39. “Deals on Wheels”; see also Michelle Slatalla, “Why Kick the Tires? Just Click the Mouse,” New York Times, 4 April 2002, 4.

40. Shreve, “Third-Party Problems”; Peter Bohr, “Kicking the Tires Virtually,” Road and Track, May 1998, 98–103; Stefan Theil, “George Jetson’s Car Lot,” Newsweek, 30 October 2000, 90; Chandler Phillips, “Confessions of a Car Salesman,” 2004, part 8: parting shots, Edmunds.Com, retrieved 12/9/2004 from www.edmunds.com/advice/buying/articles/42962/.

41. Guy Kawasaki, “Why Newspapers Are in Trouble,” Forbes, February 1998, 102; Tara Baukus Mello, “Used to the Net,” Automotive Executive, September 1999, 26–27; Matt Nauman, “A Click That Might Stick,” San Jose Mercury News, 18 May 2001, D1; Gregory Jordan, “The Internet; Online Used Car Lots That Cover the Nation,” New York Times, 22 October 2003, 13; Lisa Kalis and Dana White, “Kicking the Tires from Afar and Online,” New York Times, 13 August 2004, 10.

42. Janet Adamy, “E-Tailers Can Peg Prices Depending on Who’s Buying,” San Jose Mercury News, 24 September 2000, F1; Walter Kirn, “The End of Shopping,” New York Times Magazine, 4 December 2005, 17.

Additional Information

ISBN
9781421401676
Related ISBN
9780801889974
MARC Record
OCLC
867792828
Pages
175-218
Launched on MUSE
2013-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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