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8 New Orleans Creole Expatriates in France Romance and Reality MICHEL FABRE In the nineteenth century, France was often claimed by New Orleans Creoles of color as a spiritual home to which they felt they belonged culturally . The sons and daughters of the New Orleans French-speaking elite typically studied in institutions like the Sainte-Barbe Academy or the Couvent School, which provided primary education in the French style. After graduation, many colored youngsters from among this group were sent by their wealthy parents to pursue their education in France, just as many white Creoles attended Louis-le-Grand college at midcentury . Among the colored, mathematician Basile Crocker, poet Pierre Dalcour, and military officer Francis Dumas were educated in Paris, physicians Oscar Guimbillote and Louis Roudanez obtained their medical degrees there, and Edmond Dede, Lucien Lambert, and Eugene Victor (Victor-Eugene) Macarty were admitted to the Conservatoire de musique . The latter spent a couple ofyears studying voice, music, and composition in the city, where educator Louisa Lamotte later resided. The graphic arts followed a similar pattern. Jules Lion studied lithography and became interested in daguerreotype in Paris. And Eugene Warburg found France a more hospitable environment for pursuing his craft of marble sculpture. Born a slave and emancipated as an infant by his father, a German Jew, Warburg received his formal training in New Orleans 179 i8o MICHEL FABRE from French sculptor Philippe Garbeille, who did busts of important people. In 1849, he shared a workshop with his thirteen-year-old brother Daniel, whom he taught to be a stonecutter. Warburg received commissions from St. Louis Cathedral and produced several statues, including "Ganymede," which was ecstatically praised by the New Orleans Beeon December 13, 1850, but economic rivalry and lack of opportunity in the city incited him to leave for Europe in November 1852. He rented a studio in Montparnasse and began studying at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Frangoise Jouffroy. Warburg worked there for four years, and several of his works were accepted by the 1855 Salon de Paris.1 Educator Michel Seligny, half-brother of poet Camille Thierry, also studied in France before founding the Sainte-Barbe Academy in New Orleans. Later, he fell in love with a white married woman, and,because of his liaison, was cast out not only by the New Orleans colored high society, but by his family as well. Eventually he and his lover took refuge in Paris, where he died ten years later. One can even speak of a few dynasties among the emigrants: Richard Lucien Lambert, who had grown up playing piano in the pit of Theatre d'Orleans, enjoying a friendly rivalry with Louis Moreau Gottschalk, went to Paris, where he made a career for some years. His son Lucien Leon wasborn there in 1858. Taught by Theodore Dubois andJules Massenet, Lucien Leon left with his family for Rio de Janeiro in the i86os but seems to have returned a decade i. Lester Sullivan, "Composers of Color of Nineteenth Century New Orleans: The History Behind the Music," Black Music Research Journal 8 (1988): 11-41. Among white Creoles, Charles-Cyprien Turpin and Alfred Mercier studied at Louis-le-Grand, the latter returning to Paris for medical studies and earning a diploma . Jean-Charles Faget received his degree in medicine at Louis-le-Grand in 1844 and Dr. J. M. Durel studiedin Paris until 1853. Charles Gayarre, already well known in Louisiana's political and literary life, lived in Paris for rest, research, and writing from 1835 to 1843. Amedee-Theodore Louis published a work in Paris in 1841. Father Adrien Rouquette and his physicianbrother Dominique-Armand also stayed in Paris in midcentury. The earliest examplefound of a mixed-blood sent to Paris by his father was from 1739 (JacquesCoustillon); scores more studied in France over the years. I am indebted to the National Humanities Center for a spring 1997 fellowship that allowed me to update research for this essay. I thank Professors Frans Amelinckx , Joseph Logsdon, John J. Perret, and Charles Edwards O'Neill, S.J., for their kind help in New Orleans. NEW ORLEANS CREOLE EXPATRIATES IN FRANCE 181 later, since his "Promethee enchaine" won the Concours Rossini in 1855. On December 8, 1911, "La Roussalka," a rural ballet pantomime by Hughes Lestour and A. de Dubor, with music by Lambert, opened at the Paris Opera. Lucien's half-brother, Sidney, a brilliant pianist, likewise went to Paris to pursue his career in the mid-18705 after living...


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