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184 Fauna glorious sunset over the waters of Ponchartrain—yachts & fishers stealing about gardens full of rose laurels in full bloom & the most wonderful sand flies.”8 • “Pook turtles” was an epithet given to a class of seven gunboats designed for the Union by Samuel M. Pook. The boats’ lack of speed resulted in the nickname. A restored survivor of the Mississippi River campaign, the ironclad Cairo is on display at the Vicksburg National Military Park.9 M i s c e l l a n e o u s I nv e r t e b r at e s Invertebrates are animals without vertebral columns (backbones). About 98 percent of all animals are invertebrates—every group except mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. During the Civil War, invertebrates played sundry roles as human food (oysters), vector of disease (mosquitoes ), medicinal tool (leeches), and crop pollinator (bees). Insects Insects as a group are the most abundant and diverse creatures on the planet. The million known species likely represent only a small fraction of the total kinds present. Nearly every ecosystem on earth harbors insects. Other than those species discussed above (usually in terms of disease or misery they caused), insects were mentioned by Civil War participants as novelties and as figures of speech. Private John F. Brobst, 25th Wisconsin Infantry Regiment, near Danforth , Georgia, on May 23, 1864, in a letter to his future wife: “Boys [of this regiment are] cursing old Jeff Davis, wanting him tied up to a fence post and let the grasshoppers to kick him to death. Very good way for him to die I think, don’t you. . . . We are on our way to Atlanta.”1 Captain Samuel T. Foster, 24th Texas Cavalry (dismounted), at the battle of Pickett’s Mill, Georgia, on May 27, 1864: “Our men have no protection , but they are lying flat on the ground, and shooting as fast as they can. This continues until dark when it gradually stops, until it is very dark, when every thing is very still, so still that the chirp of a cricket could be   Miscellaneous Invertebrates 185 heard 100 feet away—all hands lying perfectly still, and the enemy not more than 40 feet in front of us.”2 Sergeant Hamlin A. Coe, 19th Michigan Volunteer Infantry, near Atlanta , Georgia, on Aug. 20, 1864: “Last night was the gloomiest of my experiences in this campaign. . . . The night air was made thrice hideous by the roar of battle upon the extreme right, the squeaking of a thousand crickets, and forest insects and the hoot of the owl.”3 Confederate sympathizer Myra Inman at Cleveland, Tennessee, on Aug. 15, 1863: “A cold, cloudy day very much like fall, the fall crickets have been singing all eve a song, which I do not like to hear.”4 Lieutenant Theodore A. Dodge, 101st New York Volunteers, near Harrison ’s Landing, Virginia, on July 3, 1862: “Such a country for productiveness I never saw. Grasshoppers as big as canaries and moths gigantic in size.”5 Refugee Kate Stone in Lamar County, Texas, on July 16, 1863: “As we sat on the gallery tonight, gazing across the darkening prairie into the gleaming west, the very air was brilliant with fireflies. The fancy came that they were the eyes of the departed Indians, come to look again on their old hunting grounds.”6 British journalist William H. Russell at Washington, D.C., on July 5, 1861: “Weary evening rather. Afterwards talk of fire flies anglice lightening bugs.”7 Sergeant Charles B. Haydon, 2nd Michigan Infantry, near Washington, D.C., on June 17, 1861: “The night was quiet. One sentinel mistook a lightning bug for a dark lantern & fired upon it. Some of them are very much inclined to be scared.”8 Mary Vermilion in a letter to her husband in the 36th Iowa Infantry from Iconium, Iowa, on May 26, 1863: “The caterpillars have killed the crab-apple grove entirely, I am very sorry about it. They are worse than they were last year.”9 186 Fauna Crustaceans Crustaceans are a large group of invertebrates that include shrimp, crabs, lobsters, crayfish, and barnacles. Most are aquatic and go through several developmental stages in their life cycle, often shedding exoskeletons in the process. As they have been since the beginning of maritime history, barnacles were a factor to be dealt with by shipping during the Civil War era. Warships, privateers, and other commercial vessels were unable to operate at their potential when burdened...


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