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Introduction 1. Liz Szabo, “Refusing Kid’s Vaccine More Common among Parents,” USA Today , June 3, 2010. 2. “,” advertisement, USA Today, April 6, 2006. 3. Michigan Department of Community Health, “Required Immunizations for Michigan Childcare/Preschool Attendance,” /PreSchoolRules_170325_7.pdf (accessed December 17, 2008); “Required Immunizations for Michigan School Settings,” _170324_7.pdf (accessed December 17, 2008). 4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “CDC Viral Hepatitis,” www.cdc .gov/hepatitis/index.htm (accessed December 17, 2008). 5. N. Anthony, M. Reed, A. M. Leff, J. Hugger, and B. Stephens, “Immunization: Public Health Programming through Law Enforcement,” American Journal of Public Health 67 (1977): 763–64; Jennifer S. Rota, Daniel A. Salmon, Lance E. Rodewald, Robert T. Chen, Beth F. Hibbs, and Eugen J. Gangarosa, “Processes for Obtaining Nonmedical Exemptions to State Immunization Laws,” American Journal of Public Health 91 (2001): 645; State of Michigan, Department of Community Health, Lansing, “Immunization Waiver Form,” DCH-0716, rev. March 2011. 6. National Conference of State Legislatures, “School Immunization Exemption State Laws,” /tabid/14376/default.aspx (accessed June 2, 2010); Linda E. LeFever, “Religious Exemptions from School Immunization: A Sincere Belief or a Legal Loophole?” Pennsylvania State University Law Review 110 (2005–6): 1047–67; Joseph W. Thompson, Shirley Tyson , Paula Card-Higginson, Richard F. Jacobs, J. Gary Wheeler, Pippa Simpson, James Bost, Kevin Ryan, and Daniel Salmon, “Impact of Addition of Philosophical Exemptions on Childhood Immunization Rates,” American Journal of Preventative Medicine 32 (2007): 194–201; Alexandra M. Stewart, “Challenging Personal Belief Immunization Exemptions: Considering Legal Responses,” Michigan Law Review 107 (2009): 105–9; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Press Release: Many Unvaccinated Because of Philosophical Beliefs,” August 21, 2008, /media/pressrel/2008/r080821.thm (accessed June 25, 2009); Saad B. Omer, William K. Y. Pan, Neal A. Halsey, Shannon Stokely, Lawrence H. Moulton, Ann Marie Navar, Mathew Pierce, and Daniel Salmon, “Nonmedical Exemptions to School Immunization Requirements: Secular Trends and Association of State Policies with Pertussis NOTES 180 Notes to Pages 5–15 Incidence,” Journal of the American Medical Association 296 (2006): 1757–63; “Foolish Vaccine Exemptions,” New York Times, October 12, 2006; Rota et al., “Processes for Obtaining Nonmedical Exemptions,” 645–48. 7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Update: Vaccine Side Effects, Adverse Reactions, Contraindications, and Precautions Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP),” /mmwrhtml/00046738.htm (accessed June 2, 2010); Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices, “Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis: Recommendations for Vaccine Use and Other Preventive Measures,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 40 (August 8, 1991). 8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “CDC Rotavirus,” rotavirus/ (accessed December 17, 2008); “Hopes and Fears for Rotavirus Vaccines,” Lancet 365 (January 15, 2005): 190. 9. Julie Bines, “Intussusception and Rotavirus Vaccines,” Vaccine 25 (2006): 3772– 76; “Panel Favors New Vaccine for Diarrhea in Children,” New York Times, December 13, 1997; “F.D.A. Approves Vaccine for Childhood Diarrhea,” New York Times, September 1, 1998; Irene Pérez-Schael, María J. Guntiñas, Mireya Pérez, Vito Pagone, Ana M. Rojas, Rosabel Gonzálas, Walter Cunto, Yasutaka Hoshino, and Albert Kapikian, “Efficacy of the Rhesus Rotavirus-Based Quadrivalent Vaccine in Infants and Young Children in Venezuela,” New England Journal of Medicine 377 (October 23, 1997): 1181–87. 10. Margaret B. Rennels, “The Rotavirus Vaccine Story: A Clinical Investigator’s View,” Pediatrics 106 (2000): 123–25; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Withdrawal of Rotavirus Vaccine Recommendation,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48 (November 5, 1999): 1007–8; Trudy V. Murphy, Paul Gargiullo, Mehran S. Massoudi, David B. Nelson, Aisha Jumaan, Catherine Okoro, Lynn Zanardi, Sabeena Setia, Elizabeth Fair, Charles LeBaron, Melinda Wharton, and John Livengood , “Intussusception among Infants Given an Oral Rotavirus Vaccine,” New England Journal of Medicine 344 (February 22, 2001): 564–72; “Hopes and Fears for Rotavirus Vaccines,” 190; Brian R. Murphy, David M. Morens, Lone Simonsen, Robert M. Chanock, John R. La Montagne, and Albert Z. Kapikian, “Reappraisal of the Association of Intussusception with the Licensed Life Rotavirus Vaccine Challenges Initial Conclusions,” Journal of Infectious Diseases 187 (2003): 1301–8; Lawrence K. Altman, “U.S. in a Push to Bar Vaccine Given to Infants,” New York Times, July 16, 1999; Lawrence K. Altman, “Vaccine for Infant Diarrhea Is Withdrawn as Health Risk,” New York Times, October 16, 1999; Lawrence K. Altman, “In Turnabout, Federal Panel Votes Against a...


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