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Contents Translator's Preface ix Preface xi Prologue xv 1. Buffon and the Inferiority of the Animal Species ofAmerica 3 I. The Absence of Large Wild Animals 3 II. The Deterioration of the Domestic Animals 5 III. The Hostility of Nature 5 IV. The Impotence of the Savage 6 v. The Cold and Humidity of the American Environment 7 VI. Putrescence and Generation-Water and Life 8 VII. America as a New Continent 14 VIII. The Larger Species More Perfect and More Stable than the Small 15 IX. Buffon's Aversion for Minutiae and Small Animals 16 x. Quantitative Criteria and Literary Scruples 21 XI. The Stable Superior to the Changeable: Aristotle 22 XII. Volume and Perfection in Modern Zoology 25 XIII. The Instability and Decadence of the Domestic Species 26 XIV. Reflections on the New World 27 xv. Nomenclature as the Cause of Confusion 28 XVI. Conclusions 29 A. Buffon and Montesquieu 29 B. Zoological Geography: Europe and America 31 c. The New Concept of Species 32 2. Some Figures of the Enlightenment 35 I. Hume and the Inferiority of the Inhabitants of the Tropics 35 II. Bodin's Theory of Climates 36 III. The Theory of Climates from Tasso to Hume 39 IV. Voltaire: The Beardless Indian and the Cowardly Lion 42 v. Raynal: America as Immature and the Americans Decrepit 45 VI. Marmontel and the Defense of the Weak and Wretched Americans 50 3. De Pauw and the Inferiority of the Men ofAmerica 52 I. Faith in Progress and Society 52 II. The Americans as Degenerate 53 III. Exaggerations in the Anti-American Thesis 56 IV. The Causes of the Catastrophe 58 v. Bacon: America a Sodden Continent 60 VI. The Indian as Animal and the Indian as Weakling 63 VII. The Indian a Slave by Nature: Aristotle, Las Casas, and Sepulveda 67 vi Contents VIII. Climate and Natural Slavery 74 IX. The Ineffectiveness of the Laws for the Protection of the Indians 76 4. European Reactions to de Pauw 80 I. Reactions Immediate and Delayed 80 II. Pemety and the American Giants 82 III. Pemety Against Buffon: The Counterattack on Europe 86 IV. De Pauw's Answer to Pemety: Degeneration and Progress 88 v. Pemety's Second Offensive: Repetita Minime Juvant 93 VI. De Pauw's Opinion Unaltered 98 VII. The Philosopher La Douceur and the Natives of North America 102 VIII. Paolo Frisi Criticizes de Pauw's Physicoclimatic Thesis 108 IX. Delisle de Sales, de Pauw's Admiring Adversary III x. The Abbe Roubaud: America and the Physiocrats 117 XI. Galiani: The "Roughcast" Continent and the World of the Future 122 XII. The Glorious Future of the West 129 XIII. Mile Phlipon and Her Schoolfriend 145 XIV. Voltaire, Frederick of Prussia, and de Pauw's Second Recherches 150 xv. Buffon's New Position: America as Immature, but the American Strong and Handsome 154 5. The Second Phase of the Dispute 157 I. The Polemic Expanded and Uplifted 157 II. Robertson and the Vastness and Poverty of Nature in America 158 111. Goldsmith's Songless Birds 161 IV. Robertson and the American Native 165 v. The Explorers of Polynesia: James Cook and George Forster, Horace Walpole and Lord Kames 169 VI. Two Supporters of de Pauw: Daniel Webb and Antonio Fonticelli 179 VII. The Long-lasting Antagonism Between Spaniard and Creole 182 VIII. The Pride of the Creoles 183 IX. The Defense of the Creole: Garcilaso and Feijoo 186 x. The Expulsion of the Jesuits 187 XI. The Spanish Jesuits: Father Nuix Makes Use of de Pauw 191 XII. De Pauw's First American Opponent 194 XIII. The American Jesuits: Father Clavigero 195 A. Fundamental Aim of the Work, the Refutation of de Pauw 197 B. The Arguments Reversed 200 c. The Defense of the Mexican Indian 203 D. Moral Vices, Religion, and Cannibalism 206 E. The Precursors of His Polemical Technique 208 XIV. Father Molina's Natural History of Chile 212 A. The Rehabilitation of Nature in Chile 213 B. Respectful Disagreement with Buffon 215 xv. Fathers Velasco, Jolis, and Peramas: Quito, the Chaco, and the River Plate 217 XVI. Carli's American Letters 233 XVII. Franklin and the North Americans' Stature 240 XVIII. Paine: The Promise of Greatness in America's Nature 245 XIX. Hamilton and Crevecoeur 250 xx. Thomas Jefferson's Notes on Virginia 252 A. The Mammoth and America's Humidity 254 B. The Animals Compared by Volume 257 Contents VII c. The Indios and the Redskins 258 D. The White Man...