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Notes 1. It took nearly forty years of research to assess the impact of tobacco on human health, to develop and adopt an International Outline Convention in 2003, and to convince a growing number of countries to take coercive measures such as bans on advertising, smoking in public places, etc. 2. The aim of the Research And Policy In Development (RAPID) programme is to increase the use of research findings in development policies. 3. We are referring here to the concept of ‘windows of opportunity’, which is well known in the information and communication technology sector, in which opportunities arise in the form of a window that opens and closes. This can apply to researchers, who have a short lapse of time in which to seize opportunities to influence the decision-making process before the window closes. 4. The rates stand at respectively 474 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births and 38 neonatal deaths per 1000 live births. 5. It should be noted that the new generation of researchers increasingly tries to distance itself from this attitude by seeking greater interaction with the community. 6. How many researchers who have occupied positions of responsibility within the government have returned to their original position at the end of their term? Very few, since many researchers remain in politics or economic and industrial development. As there are little or no statistics in this area, a study of these practices is warranted to describe and understand them. 7. Siwaa is a Minianka word meaning “dry bush”. 8. An illustration of this change can be found in the PDEF’s 2002 economic and financial report, which shows that, while strong progress has been achieved in extending access to all levels of education, the same does not apply to quality. The studies, which were shared by technical and financial partners in education, prompted the Ministry of National Education to change the annual operational budget plan (POBA) in 2003 to increase the focus on activities aimed at improving quality. 9. Opening address by Mr. Habib Sy, Minister of Agriculture and Hydraulics of Senegal (Touré 2004). 76 African Researchers and Decision-makers 10. African civil society has raised awareness in certain African governments and obtained their commitment not to sign the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA) in the form in which they were proposed by the European Commission. 11. Research institutions hire webmasters and build their own web sites and blogs. Multilateral cooperation organisations – such as United Nations agencies , Bretton Woods institutions, OECD – and bilateral organisations publish numerous research studies on their websites. Every year, IDRC publishes a CD-ROM containing around one hundred research works that is widely disseminated among researchers, decision-makers and users of research . ...

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