restricted access 11. Crime and Violence
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11 Crime and Violence 11.1 CRIM E INDE X The FBI's crime index includes both violent crime and property crime. Violent crime includes murder, non-negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault; property crime includes burglary, larceny-theft, an d motor vehicle theft. On average in 1992, 5,660 crimes were reported per 100,000 inhabitants for the country as a whole. Most crime is property crime, which accounts for 4,90 3 incidents per 100,00 0 population compare d t o 758 incidents fo r violen t crime. Th e graph belo w show s ho w th e crim e rat e skyrockete d fro m 196 0 to th e earl y 1980s , slowe d a bit , an d appear s t o b e o n th e increas e again . Areas with the highest crime rates, more than 5,800 per 100,000 population, are concentrated largely i n the souther n an d western rims of the nation (excludin g Mississipp i an d Alabama) , but als o including New York , Maryland an d Hawaii. State s wit h the lowest crim e rates, less than 4,600, are concentrated i n the northern hal f o f the country, especially a large bloc fro m Idaho to Wisconsin. Northern New England and Rhode Island, a bloc of Middle Atlantic states extending inlan d t o Kentucky , an d Mississippi , ar e als o i n th e lowes t category . State s wit h intermediate crim e rate s ar e locate d betwee n th e hig h an d lo w areas , particularly i n a band stretching fro m Kansa s an d Oklahom a t o th e easter n Midwest . Why thi s pattern ? On e o f th e mos t importan t variable s i n explainin g i t i s urbanization . (Compare wit h Ma p 1. 3 showin g Metropolita n Population. ) Th e crim e rat e i n metropolita n statistical areas in 1992 was 6,272 per 100,000; i n rural areas, the rate was 2,026. Metropolitan areas ar e concentrations o f peopl e an d property offerin g opportunit y fo r crime . Metropolitan areas als o contain concentration s o f population mos t likely t o commit crimes—th e poor , unemployed , undereducated persons, many in the dense inner cities, and some who turn to crime to suppor t dru g use or because of famil y instabilit y an d lac k of alternativ e economi c oppor tunities . Thi s map can be compared wit h Map 13.4 , Children i n Mother-Headed Households . Many sufferin g unde r thes e advers e condition s ar e Africa n Americans , Hispanic s an d othe r urban minorities ; much crim e is inflicted upo n member s o f thei r ow n groups . Ag e is als o a factor; mos t crime s ar e committe d b y peopl e unde r thirt y (particularl y youn g men ) an d th e Sunbelt and West Coast distribution shown on the map undoubtedly reflects the relative youthfulness o f th e population i n these states . Th e urban facto r predominates , however , a s shown by Mississippi , whic h ha s a larg e minorit y population , muc h poverty , a large proportio n o f female-headed household s an d a youthful population , an d ye t i s ranke d i n th e lowes t crim e index category. West Virginia, a relatively rura l state , is the lowest-ranked stat e on the crime index. CRIME RATE 1960-92: OFFENSES PER 100,000 INHABITANTS 160 Source: Department of Justice, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 1993 11.1 CRIM E INDE X TOTAL CRIME S PE R 100,00 0 POPULATION , 199 2 161 11.2 POLIC E This map shows the distribution of full-time sworn law enforcement officers per 10,000 population. It includes stat e an d loca l police , specia l police an d sherif f officers . Th e national averag e is 24 officers pe r 10,00 0 residents but varies from a high of 3 8 per 10,00 0 in New Yor k to 1 4 per 10,00 0 residents in Wes t Virginia . Generally, state s on the East Coast...


Subject Headings

  • United States -- Social conditions -- 1980- -- Statistics.
  • United States -- Population -- Statistics.
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