In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

11 Crime and Violence 11.1 CRIM E INDE X The FBI's crime index includes both violent crime and property crime. Violent crime includes murder, non-negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault; property crime includes burglary, larceny-theft, an d motor vehicle theft. On average in 1992, 5,660 crimes were reported per 100,000 inhabitants for the country as a whole. Most crime is property crime, which accounts for 4,90 3 incidents per 100,00 0 population compare d t o 758 incidents fo r violen t crime. Th e graph belo w show s ho w th e crim e rat e skyrockete d fro m 196 0 to th e earl y 1980s , slowe d a bit , an d appear s t o b e o n th e increas e again . Areas with the highest crime rates, more than 5,800 per 100,000 population, are concentrated largely i n the souther n an d western rims of the nation (excludin g Mississipp i an d Alabama) , but als o including New York , Maryland an d Hawaii. State s wit h the lowest crim e rates, less than 4,600, are concentrated i n the northern hal f o f the country, especially a large bloc fro m Idaho to Wisconsin. Northern New England and Rhode Island, a bloc of Middle Atlantic states extending inlan d t o Kentucky , an d Mississippi , ar e als o i n th e lowes t category . State s wit h intermediate crim e rate s ar e locate d betwee n th e hig h an d lo w areas , particularly i n a band stretching fro m Kansa s an d Oklahom a t o th e easter n Midwest . Why thi s pattern ? On e o f th e mos t importan t variable s i n explainin g i t i s urbanization . (Compare wit h Ma p 1. 3 showin g Metropolita n Population. ) Th e crim e rat e i n metropolita n statistical areas in 1992 was 6,272 per 100,000; i n rural areas, the rate was 2,026. Metropolitan areas ar e concentrations o f peopl e an d property offerin g opportunit y fo r crime . Metropolitan areas als o contain concentration s o f population mos t likely t o commit crimes—th e poor , unemployed , undereducated persons, many in the dense inner cities, and some who turn to crime to suppor t dru g use or because of famil y instabilit y an d lac k of alternativ e economi c oppor tunities . Thi s map can be compared wit h Map 13.4 , Children i n Mother-Headed Households . Many sufferin g unde r thes e advers e condition s ar e Africa n Americans , Hispanic s an d othe r urban minorities ; much crim e is inflicted upo n member s o f thei r ow n groups . Ag e is als o a factor; mos t crime s ar e committe d b y peopl e unde r thirt y (particularl y youn g men ) an d th e Sunbelt and West Coast distribution shown on the map undoubtedly reflects the relative youthfulness o f th e population i n these states . Th e urban facto r predominates , however , a s shown by Mississippi , whic h ha s a larg e minorit y population , muc h poverty , a large proportio n o f female-headed household s an d a youthful population , an d ye t i s ranke d i n th e lowes t crim e index category. West Virginia, a relatively rura l state , is the lowest-ranked stat e on the crime index. CRIME RATE 1960-92: OFFENSES PER 100,000 INHABITANTS 160 Source: Department of Justice, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 1993 11.1 CRIM E INDE X TOTAL CRIME S PE R 100,00 0 POPULATION , 199 2 161 11.2 POLIC E This map shows the distribution of full-time sworn law enforcement officers per 10,000 population. It includes stat e an d loca l police , specia l police an d sherif f officers . Th e national averag e is 24 officers pe r 10,00 0 residents but varies from a high of 3 8 per 10,00 0 in New Yor k to 1 4 per 10,00 0 residents in Wes t Virginia . Generally, state s on the East Coast...


Additional Information

Related ISBN
MARC Record
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.