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193 Chapter 1. Gendered Experiences and State Formation in Highland Ecuador 1. Philip Abrams, Historical Sociology (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982), 227. 2. Abrams, Historical Sociology, 240. 3. Among many useful theoretical discussions of structure and agency, some of those most relevant to the concerns of this book can be found in Abrams, Historical Sociology; Philip Corrigan and Derek Sayer, The Great Arch: English State Formation as Cultural Revolution (London: Basil Blackwell, 1985); and William Roseberry, Anthropologies and Histories: Essays in Culture, History, and Political Economy (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1989). 4. For biographical materials about the two women discussed here, see Jenny Estrada, Una mujer total: Matilde Hidalgo de Prócel (biografía) (Guayaquil: Imprenta de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1980), and Raquel Rodas, Nosotras que del amor hicimos . . . (Quito: Fraga, 1992). The lives of Matilde Hidalgo and María Luisa Gómez de la Torre are also discussed in the context of a rather different argument in A. Kim Clark, “Feminismos estéticos y antiestéticos en el Ecuador de principios del siglo XX: Un análisis de género y generaciones,” Procesos (Quito) 22 (2005): 85–105. 5. This information is drawn from the enrollment records of the Faculty of Medicine at the Central University, “Matrículas de la Facultad de Medicina, Farmacia, Odontología, Obstetricia, 15 de octubre de 1912 a 18 de junio de 1930,” Archivo General de la Universidad Central (AGUC). 6. Indeed, in his 1910 annual report to the nation, an earlier minister of the interior himself had pointed this out and urged the congress to amend the Law of Elections to make it consistent with the spirit of the constitution, granting women the right to vote. See Octavio Díaz, Informe que a la nación presenta el ministro de lo interior, policía, beneficencia, obras públicas, etc. en el año 1910 (Quito: Imprenta y Encuadernaci ón Nacionales, 1910), xi–xii. 7. Uruguay followed soon thereafter, granting women the right to vote in national elections in 1932. In Chile women were permitted to vote first in municipal elections, NOTES effective in 1934. However, neither Chilean nor Argentinean women could vote in national elections until after the Second World War. See Asunción Lavrin, Women, Feminism, and Social Change in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay, 1890–1940 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995). In Ecuador a literacy requirement continued to be linked to voting rights for both men and women until the 1979 constitution established compulsory universal suffrage. 8. In 1933 women made up 12 percent of the registered voters in Ecuador, at a time when the electorate was only 3.1 percent of the total national population. By 1968 the percentage of female registered voters had increased to 39 percent of the voting population, with just under 20 percent of the population comprising that electorate. See Juan Maiguashca and Liisa North, “Orígenes y significado del velasquismo: Lucha de clases y participación política en el Ecuador, 1920–1972,” in La cuestión regional y el poder, edited by Rafael Quintero (Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1991), 133. 9. Jorge Gómez, Las misiones pedagógicas alemanas y la educación en el Ecuador (Quito: Abya Yala and Proyecto EBI-MEC-GTZ, 1993). 10. From the 1920s this began to be publicly demonstrated in the choreographed gymnastics exercises that women from secular schools began to perform for audiences . Students from private schools of all kinds, most of which were Catholic schools, were required to take their final examinations at state schools. When they did so in physical education, female students from Catholic schools did not even have appropriate uniforms for athletic activities, much less any practice at undertaking them. See Ana María Goetschel, Educación de las mujeres, maestras y esferas públicas: Quito en la primera mitad del siglo XX (Quito: FLACSO/Abya Yala, 2007). 11. As late as 1951, the archbishop of Quito reminded Catholics that it was prohibited to send their children to non-Catholic schools. Lilo Linke, Ecuador: Country of Contrasts (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1954), 97. 12. Leonardo J. Muñoz, Testimonio de lucha: Memorias sobre la historia del socialismo en el Ecuador (Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1988). 13. On the Revolución Gloriosa, see Carlos de la Torre, La seducción velasquista (Quito: Libri Mundi, 1993). 14. On María Luisa Gómez de la Torre’s work in indigenous education, see Raquel Rodas, Crónica de un sue...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780822978053
Related ISBN
9780822962090
MARC Record
OCLC
808778755
Pages
320
Launched on MUSE
2012-08-07
Language
English
Open Access
No
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