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Preface ...............................................................................................................................................xv Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................................. xvii A Note on the Species Range Maps ................................................................................................... xix Part 1. Introduction: Michigan as a Herpetological Habitat .................................................................1 Part 2. Species Accounts ....................................................................................................................27 Class Amphibia ...................................................................................................................................29 Order Caudata (Salamanders) ......................................................................................................30 Family Ambystomatidae Blue-spotted Salamander ........................................................................................31 Blue-spotted/Jefferson Salamander Complex ..........................................................34 Spotted Salamander .................................................................................................36 Marbled Salamander ...................................................................................... 40 Small-mouthed Salamander .....................................................................................43 Eastern Tiger Salamander ........................................................................................46 Family Plethodontidae Four-toed Salamander .............................................................................................52 Eastern Red-backed Salamander ............................................................................54 Family Proteidae Common Mudpuppy ..................................................................................................58 Family Salamandridae Eastern Newt ............................................................................................................62 Family Sirenidae Western Lesser Siren ...............................................................................................65 Order Anura (Frogs and Toads)......................................................................................................67 Toads................................................................................................................................................67 Family Bufonidae Eastern American Toad.............................................................................................68 Fowler’s Toad............................................................................................................72 Contents Frogs ............................................................................................................................................. 75 Family Hylidae Blanchard’s Cricket Frog ....................................................................................... 75 Cope’s Gray Treefrog .............................................................................................. 77 Gray Treefrog .......................................................................................................... 78 Northern Spring Peeper ......................................................................................... 81 Boreal Chorus Frog ................................................................................................ 84 Western Chorus Frog .............................................................................................. 84 Family Ranidae American Bullfrog ................................................................................................... 87 Northern Green Frog ............................................................................................... 90 Pickerel Frog .......................................................................................................... 93 Northern Leopard Frog ........................................................................................... 95 Mink Frog ................................................................................................................ 99 Wood Frog ............................................................................................................ 101 Class Reptilia .................................................................................................................................. 104 Order Testudines (Turtles) ......................................................................................................... 104 Family Chelydridae Eastern Snapping Turtle ........................................................................................ 105 Family Emydidae Painted Turtle ....................................................................................................... 111 Spotted Turtle ....................................................................................................... 117 Blanding’s Turtle ................................................................................................... 121 Wood Turtle ........................................................................................................... 125 Northern Map Turtle .............................................................................................. 131 Eastern Box Turtle ................................................................................................ 135 Red-eared Slider .................................................................................................. 140 Family Kinosternidae Eastern Musk Turtle .............................................................................................. 143 Family Trionychidae Eastern Spiny Softshell ......................................................................................... 147 Order Squamata......................................................................................................................... 149 Lizards ....................................................................................................................................... 150 Family Scincidae Five-lined Skink..................................................................................................... 150 Family Teiidae Six-lined Racerunner............................................................................................. 153 The Amphibians and Reptiles of Michigan x Snakes ....................................................................................................................................... 155 Family Colubridae Kirtland’s Snake. ..................................................................................................... 155 Blue Racer.............................................................................................................. 158 Northern Ring-necked Snake................................................................................. 162 Eastern Hog-nosed Snake...................................................................................... 165 Eastern Milksnake.................................................................................................. 168 Copper-bellied Watersnake.................................................................................... 171 Common Watersnake............................................................................................. 174 Smooth Greensnake............................................................................................... 177 Central Ratsnake.................................................................................................... 180 Eastern Foxsnake................................................................................................... 183 Western Foxsnake.................................................................................................. 186 Queen Snake........................................................................................................... 188 DeKay’s Brownsnake.............................................................................................. 191 Northern Red-bellied Snake................................................................................... 194 Butler’s Gartersnake.............................................................................................. 197 Northern Ribbonsnake............................................................................................ 199 Eastern Gartersnake.............................................................................................. 201 Family Viperidae Eastern Massasauga. .............................................................................................. 205 Part 3. Quaternary Remains of Michigan Amphibians and Reptiles................................................. 211 Michigan’s Pleistocene Herpetofauna.............................................................................................. 215 Anurans....................................................................................................................................... 215 Family Bufonidae American Toad........................................................................................................ 216 Family Ranidae Green Frog. ............................................................................................................. 216 Turtles........................................................................................................................................... 216 Family Emydidae Painted Turtle......................................................................................................... 217 Family Trionychidae Spiny Softshell Turtle.............................................................................................. 218 Michigan’s Holocene Herpetofauna.................................................................................................. 219 Anurans....................................................................................................................................... 219 Family Bufonidae American Toad........................................................................................................ 219 Family Hylidae Spring Peeper......................................................................................................... 219 Contents xi Reptiles ........................................................................................................................................ 220 Family Chelydridae Eastern Snapping Turtle ........................................................................................ 220 Family Emydidae Painted Turtle ....................................................................................................... 220 Spotted Turtle ......................................................................................................... 221 Blanding’s Turtle ..................................................................................................... 221 Specifically Undetermined Map Turtle ................................................................... 222 Family Kinosternidae Eastern Musk Turtle ................................................................................................ 222 Family Trionychidae Spiny Softshell ........................................................................................................ 222 Herpetofauna of Michigan Archaeological Sites............................................................................... 222 Anurans ........................................................................................................................................ 223 Family Bufonidae American Toad ........................................................................................................ 223 Toad ........................................................................................................................ 224 Family Ranidae American Bullfrog .................................................................................................. 224 True Frog ................................................................................................................ 224 Reptiles ........................................................................................................................................ 225 Family Chelydridae Snapping Turtle ....................................................................................................... 225 Family Emydidae Painted Turtle ......................................................................................................... 227 Spotted Turtle ......................................................................................................... 229 Blanding’s Turtle ..................................................................................................... 229 Wood Turtle ............................................................................................................. 231 Northern Map Turtle ............................................................................................... 231 Eastern Box Turtle .................................................................................................. 232 Pond Slider ............................................................................................................. 233 Family Kinosternidae Eastern Musk Turtle ................................................................................................ 233 Family Trionychidae Spiny Softshell ........................................................................................................ 233 The Amphibians and Reptiles of Michigan xii Family Colubridae North American Watersnakes ................................................................................. 235 Eastern Foxsnake .................................................................................................... 235 North American Gartersnakes ................................................................................ 235 The Pleistocene ................................................................................................................................. 236 References ......................................................................................................................................... 253 General Index ..................................................................................................................................... 277 Taxonomic Index ................................................................................................................................ 285 Site Index ........................................................................................................................................... 289 Contents xiii ...


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